The Effectiveness of Melaleuca bracteata Oil Formula on Trapping of Fruit Fly Pests (Bactrocera spp.)

Agus Kardinan, Elna Karmawati

Abstract


 

Fruit flies (Bactrocera spp) can cause yield losses of 30-40% of the horticultural product and even crop failure. One way to control is to use an attractant with the active ingredient methyl eugenol. The objective of the research was to identify the catching ability and the durability of the formula on trapping fruit flies. It was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 in orchards in the Bogor area, designed in a randomized block with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of oils: (1) nutmeg, (2) cloves, (3) citronella, (4) palm, (5) melaleuca + nutmeg, (6) melaleuca + cloves, (7) melaleuca + citronella, (8 ) melaleuca + palm (1:1 ratio). As much as 1 ml of oil is dropped on a cotton swab in a trap bottle and hung on a fruit tree. Observations were made every 5 days by counting the number, type of flies, and sex of the flies trapped. It showed that nutmeg and clove oil were able to trap 5 and 7 fruit flies in the first 5 days, but subsequently no flies were trapped, while citronella and palm oil were unable to trap fruit flies. A mixture of melaleuca oil containing 84.86% methyl eugenol with nutmeg, citronella, and palm oil was able to trap fruit flies for about 3 months with a total catch of 2.479; 2.434; and 2.487, respectively, while the mixture of melaleuca+cloves was able to trap fruit flies for 4 months and was able to trap 2 female flies.

Keywords:   Attractant, Bactrocera spp., Melaleuca bracteata, methyl eugenol

 

Abstrak

Efektivitas Formula Minyak Melaleuca bracteata Terhadap Daya Tangkap Hama Lalat Buah (Bactrocera spp.)

Lalat buah (Bactrocera spp) dapat menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sebesar 30–40% pada produk hortikultura, bahkan gagal panen. Salah satu cara pengendaliannya adalah dengan menggunakan atraktan (pemikat) berbahan aktif metil eugenol (C11H14O2). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daya tangkap dan daya tahan formula dalam memerangkap hama lalat buah. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2020 sampai Maret 2021 di kebun buah-buahan (rambutan, jambu biji, dan jambu air) di Bogor, dengan rancangan acak kelompok 8 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan.  Perlakuan terdiri dari minyak : (1) pala, (2) cengkeh, (3) serai wangi, (4) sawit, (5) melaleuca + pala, (6) melaleuca + cengkeh, (7) melaleuca + serai wangi, (8) melaleuca + sawit (dengan perbandingan 1 :1).  Sebanyak 1 ml minyak diteteskan pada kapas di dalam botol perangkap dan digantungkan pada pohon. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 5 hari terhadap jumlah, jenis dan jenis kelamin lalat yang terperangkap. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa minyak pala dan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah sebanyak 5 dan 7 ekor berturut-turut pada 5 hari pertama, namun selanjutnya tidak ada lalat yang terperangkap, sedangkan minyak serai wangi dan sawit tidak mampu memerangkap lalat buah. Campuran minyak melaleuca yang mengandung metil eugenol 84,86% dengan minyak pala, serai wangi dan sawit mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama sekitar 3 bulan dengan total tangkapan sebesar 2,479; 2,434; dan 2,487 ekor per perangkap berturut-turut, sedangkan campuran Melaleuca dengan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama 4 bulan dan mampu memerangkap 2 ekor lalat betina, walaupun dengan jumlah tangkapan yang lebih rendah (2,078 ekor) daripada perlakuan lain.

Kata kunci : Atraktan, Bactrocera spp., Melaleuca bracteata, metil eugenol


Keywords


Attractant, Bactrocera spp., Melaleuca bracteata, methyl eugenol

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.44-50

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