THE EFFECT OF THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL REPROCESSING ON MICROBIAL AND OFF-FLAVOR CONTAMINATION OF WHITE PEPPER

Kendri Wahyuningsih, Christina Winarti, Sari Intan Kailaku, Hernani Hernani

Abstract


Traditional handling and processing technology of pepper (Piper nigrum) at farmer-scale produced white pepper with high microbial and off-flavor, over the SNI quality maximum limit. An experiment to determine the effect of thermal (steam heat) and non-thermal (immersion in ozone water) re-processing on microbial and off-flavor contamination of white pepper, had been executed in Laboratory of the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development work during February – November 2019. The experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomized Design with 7 treatments and three replications. The seven treatments were: control (no reprocessing), thermal treatment steam heat at 90 - 100°C for 0, 30, 60, 90 minutes and non-thermal immersionin ozonized water for 0, 20, 40, dan 60 minutes. The result showed that thermal and non-thermal reprocessing of white pepper could increase the physical characters, reduce microbial contaminant, as well as off-flavor contamination in produced white pepper. Thermal treatments for 30 minutes was identified as the best treatment. The process had been able to improve the quality of white pepper to meet SNI quality class II, reduced the microbial contaminant and reduced the chemical compounds producing off-flavor. GC-MS analysis showed that the ability of thermal treatment in reducing those compounds, such as hexanoic acid, p-cresol and 3-methyl indole. Meanwhile, propanoic acid and heptanoic acid were undetected.

Keywords:   White pepper, hot water vapor, ozone, off-flavor

 

Abstrak

PENGARUH PENANGANAN ULANG SECARA TERMAL DAN NON-TERMAL TERHADAP TINGKAT KONTAMINASI MIKROBA DAN BAU MENYIMPANG PADA LADA PUTIH

Lada putih (Piper nigrum) hasil olahan petani secara tradisional sering menghasilkan biji lada putih yang berbau menyimpang (off-flavor) menyerupai bau kotoran dan cemaran mikroba melebihi ambang batas menurut SNI. Penelitian telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen dari bulan Februari - November 2019. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh penanganan ulang biji lada putih secara termal (pemberian uap panas) dan non-termal (perendaman dalam air mengandung ozon) terhadap sifat fisiko-kimia, penurunan kontaminan mikroba dan penekanan bau menyimpang. Percobaan dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 7 perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan tersebut meliputi: kontrol (tanpa perlakuan penanganan ulang), perlakuan termal dengan pemberian uap panas pada 90-100 oC selama 30, 60 dan 90 menit serta perlakuan non-termal yaitu perendaman dalam air berozon selama 20, 40, dan 60 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penanganan ulang lada putih secara termal dan non-termal telah mampu memperbaiki mutu fisik, menurunkan kontaminan mikroba dan menekan bau menyimpang pada lada putih. Hasil terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan secara termal selama 30 menit yang mampu meningkatkan kualitas biji lada putih hingga memenuhi SNI mutu II, menekan kontaminan mikroba dan bau menyimpang secara maksimal. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan termal selama 30 menit telah mampu menurunkan persentase senyawa kimia penyebab bau menyimpang (menyerupai bau tinja dan apek), yaitu senyawa asam heksanoat, p-cresol, dan 3-metil indol. Sedangkan limpahan senyawa asam propanoat dan asam heptanoat sudah hilang tidak terdeteksi oleh instrumen.

Kata kunci: Lada putih, uap air panas, ozon, bau menyimpang


Keywords


White pepper; hot water vapor; ozone; off-flavor; Lada putih; uap air panas; ozon; bau menyimpang

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v26n2.2020.108-118

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