POLLEN VIABILITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) AS A RESULT OF GAMMA RAY IRRADIATION

Janis Damaiyani, Sri Adikadarsih, Heri Prabowo

Abstract


Pest and disease attack is a limiting factor in the production of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Efforts to assemble superior sesame varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases can be a solution to increase productivity. To get superior varieties can be done through mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. The problem is the mutations can affect the viability and morphology of pollen. This research aimed to determine the effect of gamma-ray irradiation doses on the viability and morphology of sesame pollen. It was conducted at Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute and Research Center for Plant Conservation and Botanic Garden-LIPI, from January to May 2019. It was arranged in completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was the type of sesame variety (Sumberrejo 1, Winas 1, and Winas 2),, while the second factor was the dose of gamma-ray irradiation (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 Gy). The variables to be observed were the viability and morphology of pollen. The results showed that gamma-ray irradiation up to a dose of 600 Gy did not affect the morphology, but did affected the viability of sesame pollen. The viability of pollen Sumberrejo 1 and Winas 1 varieties irradiated at doses of 100-300 Gy did not change and remained high (>50%), but at doses >300 Gy, viability decreased up to <50%. In Winas 2, pollen viability <10%, irradiated or not. The morphology of sesame pollen varieties Sumberrejo 1, Winas 1 and 2 have the character of monad, isopolar, stephanoaperture, with various sizes of pollen units.

Keywords: irradiation, gamma ray, pollen, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

 

Abstrak

VIABILITAS DAN MORFOLOGI SERBUK SARI TANAMAN WIJEN (Sesamum indicum L.) HASIL IRADIASI SINAR GAMMA

Serangan hama penyakit merupakan faktor pembatas dalam produksi wijen (Sesamum indicum L.). Upaya perakitan varietas unggul wijen yang tahan terhadap hama penyakit dapat menjadi solusi agar produktivitasnya meningkat. Untuk mendapatkan varietas unggul, dapat dilakukan melalui mutasi menggunakan iradiasi sinar gamma. Kendalanya adalah mutasi dapat memengaruhi viabilitas dan morfologi serbuk sari. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh dosis iradiasi sinar gamma terhadap viabilitas dan morfologi serbuk sari wijen. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat serta Pusat Penelitian Konservasi Tumbuhan dan Kebun Raya-LIPI, dari bulan Januari hingga Mei 2019. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan yaitu rancangan acak kelompok 2 faktor. Faktor pertama adalah jenis varietas wijen (varietas Sumberrejo 1, Winas 1, dan Winas 2), sedangkan faktor kedua adalah dosis iradiasi sinar gamma (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, dan 600 Gy).Variabel yang diamati adalah viabilitas  dan morfologi serbuk sari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa iradiasi sinar gamma sampai dengan dosis 600 Gy tidak memengaruhi morfologi, tetapi memengaruhi viabilitas serbuk sari wijen. Viabilitas serbuk sari varietas Sumberrejo 1 dan Winas 1 hasil iradiasi dengan dosis 100-300 Gy tidak berubah dan tetap tinggi (>50%), tetapi pada dosis >300 Gy, viabilitas menurun hingga <50%.  Pada Winas 2, viabilitas serbuk sari <10%, baik diiradiasi maupun tidak. Morfologi serbuk sari wijen varietas Sumberrejo 1, Winas 1 dan 2 memiliki karakter monad, isopolar, stephanoaperture, dengan ukuran unit yang bervariasi.

Kata kunci:  iradiasi, sinar gamma, serbuk sari, wijen (Sesamum indicum L.)



Keywords


irradiation; gamma ray; pollen; sesame (Sesamum indicum L.); iradiasi; sinar gamma; serbuk sari; wijen

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v26n2.2020.69-77

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