Ketahanan Varietas Unggul Baru dan Galur Isogenik Padi terhadap Penyakit Hawar Daun Bakteri pada Kondisi Lapangan

Dini Yuliani, Suprihanto Suprihanto, Sudir Sudir

Abstract


Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is a major disease of rice in Indonesia. Cilacap District of Central Java Province and Kuningan District of West Java Province are two endemic areas of BLB. The field trial was carried out in Cilacap and Kuningan in planting season of 2017 to evaluate resistance to BLB of 20 rice genotypes including 10 new improved varieties, 1 differential variety, 9 isogenic lines. The trial was arranged in a completed block design with three replications. Data collected were: 1) Incidences and severities of BLB; 2) Resistances of the rice genotypes to BLB; and 3) Pathotypes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed the incidence of BLB disease in Cilacap of 0-100% and disease severity of 0 to 85.18%. In Kuningan, the disease incidence was 0- 100% and the disease severity from 0 to 79.26%. The varieties of Inpari-32, Java-14, and the lines of IRBB-5, IRBB-7, IRBB-21, and IRBB-57 were resistant to BLB in Cilacap and Kuningan. Those varieties/lines were expected to be used as a source of resistance to BLB in Cilacap and Kuningan. Xoo pathotype test showed that 14 Xoo isolates from Cilacap classified as pathotype VIII, while nine Xoo isolates from Kuningan were classified as Pathotype III. The planting of resistant varieties based on the existence of the dominant of Xoo pathotypes which specific in the field can reduce the incidence and the severity of BLB disease effectively and efficiently, while the assembly of BLB resistant varieties can use the resistant genes of xa5, Xa7, and Xa21 as they were still effective to control the dominant pathotypes of BLB in Indonesia.


Keywords


Rice; varieties; bacterial leaf blight; resistance

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Aditya, R.H., W.S. Wahyuni, dan P.A. Mihardjo. 2015. Ketahanan lapangan lima genotipe padi terhadap penyakit hawar daun bakteri. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia 11(5): 159-165.

Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant pathology. Fifth Edition. USA: Elsevier Academic Press. 948 Hal.

Akhtar, M.A., F.M. Abbasi, H. Ahmad, M. Shahzad, M.A. Shah, and A.H. Shah. 2011. Evaluation of rice germplasm against Xanthomonas oryzae causing bacterial leaf blight. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(6): 3021-3023.

Chun, X., C. Hongqi, and Z. Xudong. 2012. Identification, mapping, isolation of the genes resisting to bacterial blight and breeding application in rice. Molecular Plant Breeding 3(12): 121-131. doi: 10.5376/mpb.2012.03.0012.

Ditlin (Direktorat Perlindungan Tanaman). 2020. Luas serangan kresek pada tanaman padi tahun 2015-2020 (ha). Direktorat Perlindungan Tanaman Pangan. Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan. Kementerian Pertanian.

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 2014. Standart evaluation system for rice. 5th Edition. Los Banos, Philippines. 55p.

Jamil, A., Satoto, P. Sasmita, Y. Baliadi, A. Guswara, dan Suharna. 2016. Deskripsi varietas unggul baru padi. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. 82 hlm.

Khaeruni, A., M. Taufik, T. Wijayanto, and E.A. Johan. 2014. Perkembangan penyakit hawar daun bakteri pada tiga varietas padi sawah yang diinokulasi pada beberapa fase pertumbuhan. Jurnal Fitopatologi 10(4): 119-125.

Khan, T.H., F.Z. Evamoni, M.H. Rubel, K.M. Nasiruddin, dan M. Rahman. 2015. Screening of rice varieties for bacterial leaf blight resistance by using SSR Markers. Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research 3(1): 45-58.

Khoshkdaman, M., A.A. Ebadi, F. Majidi-Shilsar, and S. Dariush. 2014. Preliminary evaluation of resistance genes in rice against bacterial leaf blight in Gulan Province-Iran. Agricultural Sciences 5(2): 94-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2014.52012.

Kumar, A., M.Z. Gul, A. Zeeshan, W. Bimolata, I.A. Qureshi, and I.A. Ghazi. 2013. Differential antioxidative responses of three different rice genotypes during bacterial blight infection. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7(12): 1893-1900.

Lalitha, M.S., D.G. Lalitha, K.G Naveen, and H.E. Shashidhar. 2010. Molecular marker-assisted selection: A tool for insulating parental lines of hybrid rice against bacterial leaf blight. Internasional Journal of Plant Pathology 1: 114-123.

Lore, J.S., Y. Vikal, M.S. Hunjan, R.K. Goel, T.S. Bharaj, and G.L. Raina. 2011. Genotypic and pathotypic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the cause of bacterial blight of rice in Punjab State of India. Journal of Phytopathology 159: 479-487.

Nafisah, A.A. Daradjat, B. Suprihatno, dan T.S. Kadir. 2007. Heritabilitas karakter ketahanan hawar daun bakteri dari tiga populasi tanaman padi hasil seleksi daur siklus pertaman. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 26(2): 100-105.

Qi, Z. 2009. Genetics and improvement of bacterial blight resistance of hybrid rice in China. Rice Science 16(2): 83-92.

Rahim, A., A. Khaeruni, dan M. Taufik. 2012. Reaksi ketahanan beberapa varietas padi komersial terhadap patotipe Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolat Sulawesi Tenggara. Berkala Penelitian Agronomi 1(2): 132-138.

Singh, A.K., R. Nayak, and P.K. Singh. 2015. Identification of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Science and Nature 6(2): 283-287.

Sudir, H. Pane, dan S.Y. Jatmiko. 2004. Pengendalian penyakit bercak daun pada tanaman padi di lahan sawah tadah hujan. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 23(3): 142-150.

Sudir, Suprihanto, dan T.S. Kadir. 2009. Identifikasi patotipe Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, penyebab penyakit hawar daun bakteri padi di daerah sentra produksi padi di Jawa. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 28(3): 131-138.

Sudir, B. Nuryanto, dan T.S. Kadir. 2012. Epidemiologi, patotipe, dan strategi pengendalian penyakit hawar daun bakteri pada tanaman padi. Buletin IPTEK Tanaman Pangan 7(2): 79-87.

Sudir, and D. Yuliani. 2016. Composition and distribution of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathotypes, the pathogen of rice bacterial leaf blight in Indonesia. Agrivita Journal of Agricultural science 38(2): 174-185.

Suh, J.P., J.U. Jeung, T.H. Noh, Y.C. Cho, S.H. Park, H.S. Park, M.S. Shin, C.K. Kim, and K.K. Jena. 2013. Development of breeding lines with three pyramided resistance genes that confer broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance and their moleculer analysis in rice. Rice 6(5): 1-11.

Sundaram, R.M., G.S. Laha, B.C. Viraktamath, K. Sujatha, P. Natarajkumar, Y. Hari, R.K. Srinivasa, C.S. Reddy, S.M. Balachandran, M.S. Madhav, S.K. Hajira, N.S. Rani, M.R. Vishnupriya, and R.V. Sonti. 2011. Marker assisted breeding for development of bacterial blight resistant rice. In: Muralidharan, K., and E.A. Siddiq. Genomics and Crop Improvement: Relevance and Reservations. Hyderabad, India: Institute of Biotechnology, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University. P: 154–182.

Suparyono, Sudir, dan Suprihanto. 2004. Pathotype profile of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, isolates from the rice ecosystem in Java. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 5(2): 63-69.

Suprihatno, B., A.A. Daradjat, Satoto, S.E. Baehaki, Sudir, A. Setyono, S.D. Indrasari, M.Y. Samaullah, dan M.J. Mejaya. 2011. Deskripsi varietas padi. Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. 115 hlm.

Suryadi, Y., dan T.S. Kadir. 2008. Kajian infeksi Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae terhadap beberapa genotype padi: hubungan kandungan hara dengan penyakit. Ilmu Pertanian 15(1): 26-36.

Suryadi, Y., D.N. Susilowati, P. Lestari, Sutoro, M. Ifa, T.S. Kadir, S.S. Albani, dan I.M. Artika. 2014. Analisis keragaman genetik isolat bakteri Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae dari Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah berdasarkan analisis ARDRA gen 16SrRNA. Jurnal Fitopatologi 10(2): 53-60.

Susanto, U., dan Sudir. 2012. Ketahanan genotipe padi terhadap Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae patotipe III, IV, dan VIII. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 31(2): 108-116.

Tasliah. 2012. Gen ketahanan tanaman padi terhadap bakteri hawar daun (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). Jurnal Penelitian Pengembangan Pertanian 31(3): 103-112.

Tasliah, Mahrup, dan J. Prasetiyono. 2013. Identifikasi molekuler hawar daun bakteri (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) dan uji patogenisitasnya pada galur-galur padi isogenic. Jurnal Agro Biogen 9(2): 49-57.

Wening, R.H., U. Susanto, dan Satoto. 2016. Varietas unggul padi tahan hawar daun bakteri: perakitan dan penyebaran di sentra produksi. Buletin IPTEK Tanaman Pangan 11(2): 119-126.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p15-24

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2541-5166
E-ISSN: 2541-5174
Accredited No.148/M/KPT/2020 by Kemenristek/BRIN


Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan has been indexed by:

       


Editorial Office

Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan
Jln Merdeka no. 147, Bogor 16111, Indonesia
Phone/Fax.: +62-251-8312755 
E-mail: publikasi_puslitbangtan@litbang.pertanian.go.id
Website: http://pangan.litbang.pertanian.go.id

View My Stats