PEMANFAATAN PIRAMIDA GEN KETAHANAN TERHADAP PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI DALAM MENDUKUNG PERAKITAN VARIETAS UNGGUL PADI Application of Gene Pyramiding For Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight to Develop New Rice Variety

Fatimah Fatimah, Joko Prasetiyono

Abstract


Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) is an important bacterial disease and very destructive to rice plant. BLB decreased rice production from 20%-30% up to 80%. Host-plant resistance is a cost-effective and environmentally safe approach to reduce yield loss. However the development of new rice variety by conventional selection would take several years. The genetic improvement in rice production considered as a vital program in order to ensure national food security. The availability of corresponding molecular marker makes it more precision and efficient by reducing the time required for selection. This present article highlights the molecular approach in breeding for BLB disease resistant rice varieties. In detail, it will be discussed the application of molecular marker assisted backcrossing and pyramiding gene resistance offered breeders to accelerate the rice breeding program for resistance to BLB. The pyramiding of three resistance BLB genes (xa5, Xa7, and Xa21and one gene (Xa4) as a background into two elite indica rice varieties, Ciherang and Inpari 13, was introduced successfully. The combining of conventional breeding, marker assisted backcrossing, disease evaluation, agronomic performance and yield has led the significant resistance of pyramid lines to Xoo Race III, IV and VIII in vegetative and generative phase while their yield potential was maintained (6-7 ton/ha). The current status of Ciherang-HDB and Inpari 13-HDB pyramid lines is the production of nucleoseeds and breeder seeds. This broad spectrum and durable resistance characteristic may help in controlling BLB disease in different region of Indonesia and it will facilitate the rice self-sustainability program.

Keywords: Rice, gene pyramiding, plant breeding, molecular marker.

 

Abstrak

Penyakit hawar daun bakteri (HDB) yang disebabkan oleh Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) merupakan penyakit penting pada tanaman padi karena dapat menurunkan produksi padi rata-rata 20-30% bahkan dapat mencapai 80%. Penggunaan varietas tahan merupakan cara pengendalian yang paling efektif, ramah lingkungan, dan mudah dilakukan. Namun pengembangan varietas unggul baru melalui seleksi konvensional memerlukan waktu lebih lama. Perbaikan varietas padi perlu terus dikembangkan dalam mendukung ketahanan pangan dan kemandirian pangan nasional. Tersedianya marka molekuler membantu proses pemuliaan tanaman menjadi lebih presisi dan lebih efisien sehingga mengurangi waktu seleksi pada tanaman progeni. Tulisan ini memfokuskan pendekatan molekuler dalam pemuliaan varietas tahan penyakit HDB melalui piramida gen ketahanan untuk mempercepat progam pemuliaan padi tahan penyakit HDB. Kegiatan menggabungkan tiga gen ketahanan (xa5, Xa7, dan Xa21) dan satu gen (Xa4) sebagai background ke dalam padi varietas Ciherang dan Inpari-13 telah berhasil dilakukan. Melalui penggabungan beberapa pendekatan yaitu pemuliaan konvensional dan silang balik berbantu marka, evaluasi penyakit dan keragaan agronomi serta komponen hasil telah menunjukkan peningkatan ketahanan yang nyata pada galur-galur piramida Ciherang HDB dan Inpari-13 HDB pada tiga ras Xoo (Ras III, IV, dan VIII), baik pada fase vegetatif maupun generatif dengan potensi hasil tidak berbeda nyata dengan tetuanya (6-7 t/ha). Saat ini sudah diproduksi benih inti (NS) dan benih penjenis (BS) galur-galur piramida Ciherang HDB dan Inpari-13 HDB. Dengan demikian, galur-galur piramida memiliki spektrum yang luas dan mampu bertahan dalam jangka waktu lama sehingga dapat mengontrol penyakit HDB di berbagai wilayah Indonesia dan mendukung target pemerintah untuk mempertahankan swasembada beras secara berkelanjutan.

Kata kunci: Padi, piramida gen, pemuliaan tanaman, marka molekuler.

 


Keywords


Rice;gene pyramiding;plant breeding;molecular marker

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v39n1.2020.p11-20

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