PEMANFAATAN PELAPIS EDIBEL UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS BUAH DAN SAYUR SEGAR / Utilization of Edible Coatings to Maintain the Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

Melly Novita, Sugiyono Sugiyono, Nugraha Edhi Suyatma, Sri Yuliani


The increasing awareness of healthy living among consumers encourages producers to increase the availability of quality fresh fruits and vegetables without preservatives. Fruits and vegetables are perishable products because they have high water content. In addition, after harvesting, fruits and vegetables are still undergoing the process of respiration and transpiration. Respiration and transpiration are the main causes of damage and deterioration of fruit quality after harvest. Coatings can create modified atmospheric conditions that slow fruit ripening and prevent water loss, which in turn delays spoilage. The main components of the coating are hydrocolloid and lipid matrix. Polysaccharide and protein coatings were effective in reducing the respiratory rate of tomatoes, carrots, guava, papaya, cucumber, and peppers thereby extending shelf life. Lipid-based coatings are able to maintain the weight of oranges, increase luster and delay wilting of tomatoes and green chilies. In addition to physiological effects, the coating can also protect fruits and vegetables from pathogenic infections such as chitosan which provides antimicrobial functions in cucumbers. The mechanical, functional, and organoleptic properties of the coating depend on the main components in the biopolymer matrix and the additives used. The use of composite coatings provides maximum results for the preservation of fruit and vegetables because, in addition to reducing the respiration rate, it is also able to maintain product water loss. This paper describes coating technology with an emphasis on edible composite coatings, the effect on fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as the implementation of active ingredients in the development of edible coatings and future development directions.

Keywords: Fruit, vegetable, edible coating, preservation



Kesadaran hidup sehat di kalangan konsumen yang terus meningkat mendorong produsen meningkatkan ketersediaan buah dan sayur segar yang berkualitas tanpa bahan pengawet. Buah dan sayur merupakan produk yang cepat rusak karena memiliki kandungan air yang tinggi. Selain itu, buah dan sayur setelah dipanen masih menjalani proses respirasi dan transpirasi. Respirasi dan transpirasi merupakan penyebab utama kerusakan dan kemunduran kualitas buah setelah panen. Pelapisan (coating) dapat menciptakan kondisi atmosfer termodifikasi sehingga memperlambat kematangan buah dan mencegah kehilangan air, yang akhirnya menunda kebusukan. Komponen utama pelapis yaitu matriks hidrokoloid dan lipid. Pelapis polisakarida dan protein efektif menurunkan laju respirai tomat, wortel, guava, pepaya, mentimun, dan paprika sehingga memperpanjang umur simpan. Pelapis berbasis lipid mampu mempertahankan bobot jeruk, meningkatkan kilau dan menunda layu tomat dan cabai hijau. Selain efek fisiologi, pelapisan juga dapat melindungi buah dan sayur dari infeksi patogen seperti kitosan yang memberikan fungsi antimikrobial pada mentimun. Sifat mekanik, fungsional, maupun organoleptik pelapis bergantung pada komponen utama dalam matriks biopolimer dan bahan tambahan yang digunakan. Penggunaan pelapis komposit memberikan hasil maksimal bagi pengawetan buah dan sayur, karena selain menurunkan laju respirasi juga mampu menjaga kehilangan air produk. Naskah ini memaparkan teknologi pelapisan dengan menitikberatkan pada pelapis komposit edibel, pengaruh pada buah dan sayur segar, serta implementasi bahan aktif pada pengembangan pelapis edibel dan arah pengembangan ke depan.

Kata kunci: Buah, sayur, pelapisan, pengawetan


fruit, vegetable, edible coating, composite coating, active coating, preservation

Full Text:



Alves, M. M., Gonçalves, M. P. and Rocha, C. M. R. (2017). ‘Effect of ferulic acid on the performance of soy protein isolate-based edible coatings applied to fresh-cut apples’, LWT - Food Science and Technology 80: 409–415. Arnon, H., Zaitsev, Y., Porat, R. and Poverenov, E. (2014). ‘Effects of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan bilayer edible coating on postharvest quality of citrus fruit’, Postharvest Biology and Technology 87: 21–26. Ayala-zavala, J.F., Silva-Espinoza, B.A., Cruz-Valenzuela, M.R., Leyva, J.M., Ortega-Ramírez, L.A., Carrazco-Lugo, D.K., Pérez-Carlón, J.J., Melgarejo-Flores, B.G., González-Aguilara, G.A. and Miranda, M.R.A. (2012). ‘Pectin–cinnamon leaf oil coatings add antioxidant and antibacterial properties to freshcut peach’, Flavour and Fragrance Journal 28: 39–45. Ayranci, E. and Tunc, S. (2004) ‘The effect of edible coatings on water and vitamin C loss of apricots (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.) and green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)’, Food Chemistry 87: 339–342. Badan Pusat Statistik (2021). Statistik Indonesia 2021. Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. Chiumarelli, M. and Hubinger, M.D. (2014). ‘Evaluation of edible films and coatings formulated with cassava starch, glycerol, carnauba wax and stearic acid’, Food Hydrocolloids 38: 20–27. Desobry, S. and Debeaufort, F. (2015). ‘Encapsulation of flavors, nutraceuticals, and antibacterials’, in Mishra, M. (ed.) Handbook of encapsulation and controlled release. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Enujiugha, V.N. and Oyinloye, A.M. (2019). Protein-lipid interactions and the formation of edible films and coatings, Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry 478-482. Fabra, M.J., Talens, P., Gavara, R. and Chiralt, A. (2012). ‘Barrier properties of sodium caseinate films as affected by lipid composition and moisture content’, Journal of Food Engineering 109(3): 372–379. Fagundes, C., Paloub, L., Monteiroa, A.R. and Pérez-Gago, M.B. (2014). ‘Effect of antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulosebeeswax edible coatings on gray mold development and quality attributes of cold-stored cherry tomato fruit’, Postharvest Biology and Technology 92: 1–8. Fasihnia, S.H., Peighambardoust, S.H., Peighambardoust, S.J. and Oromiehie, A. (2018). ‘Development of novel active polypropylene based packaging films containing different concentrations of sorbic acid’, Food Packaging and Shelf Life 18: 87–94. Gallo, J.Q., Debeaufort, F., Callegarin, F. and Voilley, A. (2000). ‘Lipid hydrophobicity, physical state and distribution effects on the properties of emulsion-based edible films’, Journal of Membrane Science 180: 37–46. Grande-Tovar, C.D., Chaves-Lopez, C., Serio, A., Rossi, C. and Paparella, A. (2018). ‘Chitosan coatings enriched with essential oils: Effects on fungi involve in fruit decay and mechanisms of action’, Trends in Food Science and Technology. 78: 61–71. Guerreiro, A.C., Gago, C.M.L., Faleiro, M.L., Miguel, M.G.C. and Antunes. M.D.C. (2015). ‘The use of polysaccharide-based edible coatings enriched with essential oils to improve shelf-life of strawberries’, Postharvest Biology and Technology 110: 51– 60. Hassan, B., Chatha, S.A.S., Hussain, A.I., Zia, K.M. and Akhtar, N. (2018). ‘Recent advances on polysaccharides, lipids and protein based edible films and coatings: A review’, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 109: 1095–1107. Hassani, F., Garousi, F. and Javanmard, M. (2012). ‘Edible coating based on whey protein concentrate-rice bran oil to maintain the physical and chemical properties of the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)’, Trakia Journal of Sciences, 10(1): 26–34. Hijriawati, M. and Febrina, E. (2016) ‘Review: Edible film antimikroba’, Farmaka, 14: 8–16. Janjarasskul, T., Rauch, D.J., McCarthy, K.L. and Krochta, J.M. (2014). ‘Barrier and tensile properties of whey proteincandelilla wax film/sheet’, LWT - Food Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd, 56(2): 377–382. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2013.11.034. Joshi, A.V. and Rao, T.V.R. (2018). ‘Edible coating delay ripening and influence the quality and shelf life of fruits and vegetable’, The Journal of Plant Science Research 34(1): 1–7. Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/BAPPENAS (2021). Laporan Kajian Food loss and waste di Indonesia dal rangka mendukung penerapan ekonomi sirkular dan pembangunan. Khorram, F., Ramezanian, A. and Hosseini, S.M.H. (2017). ‘Shellac, gelatin and Persian gum as alternative coating for orange fruit’, Scientia Horticulturae 225:22–28. Kurek, M., Galus, S. and Debeaufort, F. (2014). ‘Surface, mechanical and barrier properties of bio-based composite films based on chitosan and whey protein’, Food Packaging and Shelf Life 1(1): 56–67. Maftoonazad, N., Ramaswamy, H.S., Moalemiyan, M. and Kushalappa, A.C. (2007). ‘Effect of pectin-based edible emulsion coating on changes in quality of avocado exposed to Lasiodiplodia theobromae infection’, Carbohydrate Polymers 68(2): 341–349. Maringgal, B., Hashima, N., Tawakkal, I.S.M.A. and Mohamed, M.T.M. (2020). ‘Recent advance in edible coating and its effect on fresh/fresh-cut fruits quality’, Trends in Food Science & Technology 96:253–267. Meindrawan, B., Suyatma, N.E., Wardanaa, A.A. and Pamela, V.Y. (2018). ‘Nanocomposite coating based on carrageenan and ZnO nanoparticles to maintain the storage quality of mango’, Food Packaging and Shelf Life 18:140–146. Mellinas, C., Valdés, A., Ramos, M., Burgos, N., Garrigós, M.D.C. and Jiménz, A. (2016). ‘Active edible films: Current state and future trends’, Journal Applied Polymer Science pp. 1–15. Mohamed, S.A.A., El-sakhawy, M. and El-sakhawy, M.A. (2020). ‘Polysaccharides, protein and lipid-based natural edible films in food packaging: A Review’, Carbohydrate Polymers 238:116178. Mousavi Khaneghah, A., Hashemi, S.M.B. and Limbo, S. (2018). ‘Antimicrobial agents and packaging systems in antimicrobial active food packaging: An overview of approaches and interactions’, Food and Bioproducts Processing 111:1–19. Nayik, G.A., Majid, I. and Kumar, V. (2015). ‘Developments in Edible films and Coatings for the extension of Shelf Life of Fresh Fruits’, American Journal of Nutrition and Food Science 2:16–20. Nor Amalini, A., Norziah, M.H., Khan, I. and Haafi, M.K.M. (2018). ‘Exploring the properties of modified fish gelatin films incorporated with different fatty acid sucrose esters’, Food Packaging and Shelf Life 15:105–112. Ochoa-Reyes, E., Martínez-Vazquez, G., Saucedo-Pompa, S., Montañez, J., Rojas-Molina, R., de Leon-Zapata, M.A., Rodríguez-Herrera, R. and Cristóbal N. Aguilar. (2013). ‘Improvements of shelf life quality of green bell peppers using edible films coatings formulations’, Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Science 2(6):2448–2451. Olivas, G.I., Rodriguez, J.J. and Barbosa-Casanovas, G.V. (2003). ‘Edible coatings composed of methylcellulose, stearic acid, and additives to preserve quality of pear wedges’, Journal of Food Processing Preservation 27:299–320. Poverenov, E., Zaitsev, Y., Arnon, H., Granit, R., Alkalai-Tuvia, S., Perzelan, Y., Weinberg, T. and Fallik, E. (2014). ‘Effects of a composite chitosan–gelatin edible coating on postharvest quality and storability of red bell peppers’, Postharvest Biology and Technology 96: 106–109. Poverenov, E., Cohen, R., Yefremov, T., Vinokur, Y. and Rodov, V. (2014). ‘Effects of polysaccharide-based edible coatings on fresh-cut melon quality’, Acta Horticulturae pp:145–152. Razavi, S.M.A., Amini, A.M. and Zahedi, Y. (2015). ‘Characterisation of a new biodegradable edible film based on sage seed gum/ : Influence of plasticiser type and concentration’, Food hydrocolloids 43: 290–298. Rodrigues, D.C., Cunha, A.P., Brito, E.S., Azeredo, H.M.C. and Gallao, M.I. (2016). ‘Mesquite seed gum and palm fruit oil emulsion edible films: Influence of oil content and sonication’, Food Hydrocolloids 56: 227–235. Salvia-Trujillo, L., Rojas-Graü, A., Soliva-Fortuny, R. and Martín- Belloso, O. (2015). ‘Physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of food-grade emulsions and nanoemulsions incorporating essential oils’, Food Hydrocolloids 43: 1–10. Santagata, G., Mallardo, S., Fasulo, G., Lavermicocca, P., Valerio, F., Biase, M.D., Stasio, M.D., Malinconico, M. and Volpe, M.G. (2018). ‘Pectin-honey coating as novel dehydrating bioactive agent for cut fruit: Enhancement of the functional properties of coated dried fruits’, Food Chemistry 258:104–110. Suyatma, N.E., Ishikawa, Y. and Kitazawa, H. (2013). ‘Nanoreinforcement of pectin film to enhance its functional packaging properties by incorporating ZnO Nanoparticles’, Advanced Materials Research 845: 451–456. Tavassoli-Kafrani, E., Shekarchizadeh, H. and Masoudpour- Behabadi, M. (2016). ‘Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans’, Carbohydrate Polymers 137: 360–374. Utama, I.G.M., Utama, I.M.S. dan Pudja, I.A.R.P. (2016). ‘Pengaruh konsentrasi emulsi lilin lebah sebagai pelapis buah mangga arumanis terhadap mutu selama penyimpanan pada suhu kamar’, Jurnal Beta (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian), 4: 81–92. Valdés, A., Burgos, N., Jiménez, A. and Garrigós, M.C. (2015). ‘Natural pectin polysaccharides as edible coatings’, Journal Coatings (5): 865–886. Vina, S.Z., Mugridge, A., Garcýa, M.A., Ferreyra, R.M., Martino, M.N., Chaves, A.R. and Zaritzky, N.E. (2007). ‘Effects of polyvinylchloride films and edible starch coatings on quality aspects of refrigerated Brussels sprouts’, 103: 701–709. Xu, D., Qin, H. and Ren, D. (2018). ‘Prolonged preservation of tangerine fruits using chitosan/montmorillonite composite coating’, Postharvest Biology and Technology 143:50–57. Zhang, Y., Simpson, B.K. and Dumont, M.J. (2018). ‘Effect of beeswax and carnauba wax addition on properties of gelatin films: A comparative study’, Food Bioscience 26: 88–95.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Balai Pengelola Alih Teknologi Pertanian
Jalan Salak No.22, Bogor 16151
Telp. : (0251) 8382563
Faks. : (0251) 8382567
E-mail :
Website :


Creative Commons License
JP3 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats