PEMANFAATAN PELAPIS EDIBEL UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS BUAH DAN SAYUR SEGAR / Utilization of Edible Coatings to Maintain the Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

Melly Novita, Sugiyono Sugiyono, Nugraha Edhi Suyatma, Sri Yuliani

Abstract


The increasing awareness of healthy living among consumers encourages producers to increase the availability of quality fresh fruits and vegetables without preservatives. Fruits and vegetables are perishable products because they have high water content. In addition, after harvesting, fruits and vegetables are still undergoing the process of respiration and transpiration. Respiration and transpiration are the main causes of damage and deterioration of fruit quality after harvest. Coatings can create modified atmospheric conditions that slow fruit ripening and prevent water loss, which in turn delays spoilage. The main components of the coating are hydrocolloid and lipid matrix. Polysaccharide and protein coatings were effective in reducing the respiratory rate of tomatoes, carrots, guava, papaya, cucumber, and peppers thereby extending shelf life. Lipid-based coatings are able to maintain the weight of oranges, increase luster and delay wilting of tomatoes and green chilies. In addition to physiological effects, the coating can also protect fruits and vegetables from pathogenic infections such as chitosan which provides antimicrobial functions in cucumbers. The mechanical, functional, and organoleptic properties of the coating depend on the main components in the biopolymer matrix and the additives used. The use of composite coatings provides maximum results for the preservation of fruit and vegetables because, in addition to reducing the respiration rate, it is also able to maintain product water loss. This paper describes coating technology with an emphasis on edible composite coatings, the effect on fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as the implementation of active ingredients in the development of edible coatings and future development directions.

Keywords: Fruit, vegetable, edible coating, preservation

 

Abstrak

Kesadaran hidup sehat di kalangan konsumen yang terus meningkat mendorong produsen meningkatkan ketersediaan buah dan sayur segar yang berkualitas tanpa bahan pengawet. Buah dan sayur merupakan produk yang cepat rusak karena memiliki kandungan air yang tinggi. Selain itu, buah dan sayur setelah dipanen masih menjalani proses respirasi dan transpirasi. Respirasi dan transpirasi merupakan penyebab utama kerusakan dan kemunduran kualitas buah setelah panen. Pelapisan (coating) dapat menciptakan kondisi atmosfer termodifikasi sehingga memperlambat kematangan buah dan mencegah kehilangan air, yang akhirnya menunda kebusukan. Komponen utama pelapis yaitu matriks hidrokoloid dan lipid. Pelapis polisakarida dan protein efektif menurunkan laju respirai tomat, wortel, guava, pepaya, mentimun, dan paprika sehingga memperpanjang umur simpan. Pelapis berbasis lipid mampu mempertahankan bobot jeruk, meningkatkan kilau dan menunda layu tomat dan cabai hijau. Selain efek fisiologi, pelapisan juga dapat melindungi buah dan sayur dari infeksi patogen seperti kitosan yang memberikan fungsi antimikrobial pada mentimun. Sifat mekanik, fungsional, maupun organoleptik pelapis bergantung pada komponen utama dalam matriks biopolimer dan bahan tambahan yang digunakan. Penggunaan pelapis komposit memberikan hasil maksimal bagi pengawetan buah dan sayur, karena selain menurunkan laju respirasi juga mampu menjaga kehilangan air produk. Naskah ini memaparkan teknologi pelapisan dengan menitikberatkan pada pelapis komposit edibel, pengaruh pada buah dan sayur segar, serta implementasi bahan aktif pada pengembangan pelapis edibel dan arah pengembangan ke depan.

Kata kunci: Buah, sayur, pelapisan, pengawetan


Keywords


fruit, vegetable, edible coating, composite coating, active coating, preservation

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v41n2.2022.p65-73

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