PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI (P.cichorii) (Swingle 1925) (STAPP 1928) PADA TANAMAN KRISAN (D.grandiflora Tzvelev) DAN UPAYA PENGENDALIANNYA DI INDONESIA/Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease (Swingle 1925) (STAPP 1928) in Chrysanthemum and Its Control in Indonesia

Hanudin Hanudin, Lia Sanjaya, Budi Marwoto


Bacterial leaf blight caused by Pseudomonas cichorii is a major disease in chrysanthemum plants almost all over the world. In Indonesia, this pathogen can cause damage to chrysanthemum 10- 60%. Bacteria spread from one plant to another through water droplets from modern irrigation networks as well as conventional irrigation. P. cichorii is a polyphagic pathogen, which infects succulents and others across continents with varying incidence. Symptoms of transmission of this pathogen in each type of plant are always different, and effective control methods have not been found. This article discusses the virulence of pathogens, the incidence of transmission, and recommendations for controlling bacterial leaf blight on chrysanthemums in Indonesia. A search of various references from within and outside the country shows that P. cichorii can be controlled by combining several methods, namely (a) the use of tolerant varieties (Puspita Nusantara, Puspa Kania, Dwina Kencana, Dwina Pelangi, Pasopati, Paras Ratu, and Wastu Kania), (b) technical culture (extracting infected leaves and watering in the morning), and (c) application of synthetic chemical bactericides with active ingredients of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, or biopesticides with active bacterial isolates of the antagonistic bacteria Bacillus subtilis MI600, and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937, and combination of P. fluorescens Pf Irana with Pf Slada-2.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, P. chicorii, bacterial leaf blight disease, epidemiology, control



Hawar daun bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Pseudomonas cichorii merupakan penyakit utama pada tanaman krisan hampir di seluruh penjuru dunia. Di Indonesia, patogen ini dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada tanaman krisan 10-60%. Bakteri menyebar dari satu tanaman ke tanaman lain melalui tetesan air dari jaringan irigasi modern maupun penyiraman konvensional. P. cichorii merupakan patogen yang bersifat polifag, yang menginfeksi tanaman sukulen dan lainnya di seluruh benua dengan insidensi bervariasi. Gejala penularan patogen ini pada setiap jenis tanaman selalu berbeda, dan belum ditemukan metode pengendalian yang efektif. Artikel ini membahas virulenitas patogen, insidensi penularan, dan rekomendasi pengendalian hawar daun bakteri pada tanaman krisan di Indonesia. Penelusuran dari berbagai referensi dari dalam dan luar negeri menunjukkan P. cichorii dapat dikendalikan dengan memadukan beberapa metode, yaitu (a) penggunaan varietas toleran (Puspita Nusantara, Puspa Kania, Dwina Kencana, Dwina Pelangi, Pasopati, Paras Ratu, dan Wastu Kania), (b) kultur teknis (perompesan daun terinfeksi dan penyiraman pada pagi hari), serta (c) aplikasi bakterisida kimia sintetik berbahan aktif hydrogen peroxide dan peroxyacetic acid, atau biopestisida berbahan aktif isolat bakteri antagonis Bacillus subtilis MI600, dan B. amyloliquefaciens IN937, serta kombinasi P. fluorescens Pf Irana dengan Pf Slada-2.

Kata kunci: Krisan, P. chicorii, bakteri hawar daun, epidemiologi, pengendalian.


Chrysanthemum; P. chicorii; bacterial leaf blight disease; epidemiology; control; Krisan; P. chicorii; bakteri hawar daun; epidemiologi; pengendalian

Full Text:



Alemu, F. (2013). lsolation of Pseudomonas fluorescens species from rhizospheric soil of faba bean and assessment oftheir siderophores production. International Journal of Advanced Research 1(8):203–210.

Alippi, A.M. (1996). First report of bacterial spot of celery caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Argentina. Plant Disease 80(5):599.

Alivizatos, A.S. (1986). Pseudomonas cichorii on Gerbera jamesonii in Greece. Annales de l’Institut Phytopathologique Benaki 15(1):81–84.

Allex, D. and Rat, B. (1990). Les bactTrioses des salades un problFme omniprTsent. P.H.M. Revue Horticole(310):45–50.

Amorin, L., BASF. and Kimati, H. (2005). Manual de Fitopatologia. Sao Paulo Agronomica Ceres. p. 633.

Arsenijevic, M. (1990). Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja 41(1):21–29.

Choppakatla, V. K. (2015). Ornamental Pest Control Solutions from BioSafe Systems: An Overview of ProductLine. Workshop presentations / 2015_BioSafe.pdf.

Compant, S., Reiter, B.J., Nowak, A., Sessitsch, C., Clément and Barka, E.A. (2005). Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain PJSN. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(4):1685–1693. doi:

Cottyn. B, Baeyen. S, Pauwelyn. E, Verbaendert. I, Vos P. D., Bleyaert. P., Höfte. M , Maes, M. (2011). Development of a real‐time PCR assay for Pseudomonas cichorii, the causal agent of midrib rot in greenhouse‐grown lettuce, and its detection in irrigating water. Plant Pathology 60(3):453–461. doi: 2010.02388.x.

Daughtrey, M. (1980). A Bacterial Disease of Chrysanthemum (and Geranium). Bulletin New York State Flower Industries, Inc.(122).

Dhanvantari, B.N. (1990). Occurrence of bacterial stem rot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in greenhouse-grown lettuce in Ontario. Plant Disease 74(5):394.

Diaz, C.N. (2006). Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria in Integrated Disease Management and Productivity of Tomato. Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of the Ohio State Univer.

Djatnika, I. (2012). Seleksi bakteri antagonis untuk mengendalikan layu Fusarium pada tanaman Phalaenopsis. J. Hort. 22(3):276–84.

Duveiller, E. (1986). Bacterial rot of witloof chicory caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Burundi. Parasitica 42(2):55–57.

Elwakil, W.M. and Mossler, M. (2019). Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Cabbage. CIR1256, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original Publication Date September 2000. Reviewed March 2019.

Ferreira-Pinto, M.M. and Oliveira, H. (1993). A new bacterial disease of lettuce in Portugal caused by Pseudomonas cichorii (Swingle) Stapp. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 32(3):249–253.

Fu, X.Y., Zhang, R.Y., Tan, Z.Q., Liu, T. and Peng, Z.Q. (2019). First report of bacterial leaf spot of cucumber caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in China. Plant Disease 103(1):147–148.

Gappa-Adachi, R., Morita, Y., Shimomoto, Y. and Takeuchi, S. (2014). Bacterial leaf blight of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology 80(1):103–107.

Grogan, R., Misaghi, I., Kimble, K., Greathead, A., Ririe, D. and Bardin, R. (1977). Varnish spot, destructive disease of lettuce in California caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Phytopathology 67(8):957–960.

Gvozdyak, R.I. and Pendus, N.I. (1988). Bacterial diseases of ginseng leaves in the Ukraine. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 50(3):52–55.

Hansen, M.A. (2019). Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive); symptoms on sage (Salvia spp). CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Last modified 21 November 2019.

Hanudin, Budiarto, K. and Marwoto, B. (2017). Aplication of PGPR and Antagonist Fungi based Biofungicide for White Rust Disease Control and Its Economic Analysis in Chrysanthemum Production. Agrivita 39(3):266 – 278.

Hanudin dan Marwoto, B. (2003). Pengendalian penyakit layu bakteri dan akar gada pada tomat dan caisim menggunakan Pseudomonas fluorescens. Jurnal Hortikultura(13):58−66.

Hanudin, Nuryani, W., Diningsih, E., Rahardjo, I.B., Sanjaya, L.L. and Marwoto, B. (2020). Compatibility of Antagonistic Bacteria in Control of Bacterial Leaf Blight (Pseudomonas cichorii) in Chrysanthemum. Draft Proceeding International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Ornamentals. IPB International Convention Center, Bogor Agricultural UUniversity, Bogor Indonesia, July 22nd – 24th 2020.

Harpini, B. (2018). Pedoman Umum Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Dan Anggaran Badan Karantina Pertanian Tahun Anggaran 2018. Badan Karantina Pertanian. Jl. Harsono RM No. 3 Ragunan, Jakarta Selatan, 12550. Http:// 123456789/5410.

Hassanzadeh, N. (1993). Taxonomic study on some bacterial plant pathogens in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 60(1–2):17–18.

Hikichi, Y., Wali, U.M., K., O. and Kiba, A. (2013). Mechanism of disease development caused by a multihost plant bacterium, Pseudomonas cichorii, and its virulence diversity. Journal of General Plant Pathology 79:379– 89.

Holcomb, G.. and Cox, P.J. (1998). First report of basil leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Louisiana and cultivar screening results. Plant Disease 82(11):1283; 3 ref.

Horita, H. (1993). Occurrence of Bacterial Leaf Spot Disease of Chrysanthemum Incited by Pseudomonas Cichorii (Swingle) Stapp in

Hokkaido. Horita, H. (1993). Occurrence of Bacterial Leaf Spot Disease of Chrysanthemum Incited by Pseudomonas Cichorii (Swingle) Stapp in Hokkai.

Hseu, S.H., Sung, C.J., Tsai, S.F. and Hsu, S.Y. (2013). Occurrence and identification of bacterial leaf spot of Basil found in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin22(2):93–103.

Inou, T., Kajihara, H., Muramoto, K., Yoshioka, R. and Sawada, H. (2013). Fruit rot, a new symptom of okra bacterial blight caused bya Pseudomonas chicorii. Japanese Journal Phytopathology 79:99–104.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) (2016). Reports on Plant Diseases: Bacterial Diseases of Geranium. Http://Ipm.Illinois.Edu/Diseases/ Series600/Rpd607/. Retrieved 2016-11-17. Diunduh 3.2.2020.

Janse, J.D. (1987). Biology of Pseudomonas cichorii in chrysanthemum. EPPO Bulletin17(3):321–333. doi:

Jones, J.B., Randhawa, P.S. and Sasser, M. (1990). Selective isolation of Pseudomonas cichorii from soil and from leaves and buds of Dendrathema grandiflora. Plant Dis 74:300–303.

Jones, R.K. and Benson, D.M. (1986). Bacterial Leaf Spot and Bud Blight of Chrysanthemum. Https://Hortscans.Ces.Ncsu.Edu/Uploads/b/a/Bacteria_53e10a996ff13.Pdf.

Kusnadi (2019). Dasar-Dasar Bakteriologi. Https://Studylibid.Com/Doc/514965/Dasar-Dasar-Bakteriologi, Diunduh 31 Januari 2020.

Lelliott, R.A. and Stead, D.E. (1987). Methods for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases of Plants. British Society for Plant Pathology by Blackwell Scientific Publications. London WC1N 2ES. ISBN 0-632-01233-1.

Li, B.J., Li, H.L., Shi, Y.X. and Xie, X.W. (2014). First report of Pseudomonas cichorii causing leaf spot of vegetable sponge gourd in China. Plant Disease 98(1):153.

Liu, Y. and He, F. (2019). Incorporating the disease triangle framework for testing the effect of soil‐borne pathogens on tree species diversity Gallery, R. (ed.). Functional Ecology33(7):1211–1222. doi:

Loper, J.E. and Gross, H. (2007). Genomic analysis of antifungal metabolite production by Pseudomonas flourescens Pf-5. European Journal of Plant Pathology 119:265–278. doi:

Lozoya-Saldaña, H. (2011). Evolution of vertical and horizontal resistance and its application in breeding resistance to potato late blight. Potato Journal 38(1):1–8.

Mariano, R.L.R., Reis, A. and Michereff, S.J. (1994). Diseases caused by bacteria on artichoke, lettuce, chicory, strawberry and okra. Informe Agropecua^acute~rio (Belo Horizonte)17(182):13–16.

Markiewicz, Z. and Popowska, M. (2011). An Update on Some Structural Aspects of the Mighty Miniwall. Polish Journal of Microbiology 60(3):181–186.

Marques, E., Borges, R.C. and Uesugi, C.H. (2016). Identification and pathogenicity of Pseudomonas cichorii associated with a bacterial blight of gerbera in the Federal District. Horticultura Brasileira 34(2):244–248. doi:

Marwoto, B., Sanjaya, L., Kurniasih, D., Yulianto, K., Darliah., Badraih, S.D. and Dewanti, M. (2009). Fasilitasi Pelepasan Varietas Unggul Non Anggrek (Lili, Anthurium, Krisan, Mawar, Gladiol, Dan Anyelir). Laporan Hasil Penelitian Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias T. A. 2009.

Matta, A. and Garibaldi, A. (1970). La batteriosi delle insalate causata da Pseudomonas cichorii. Informatore Fitopatologico 20:353–354.

Moorman, G.W. (2016). Chrysanthemum – Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas Cichorii) UMass Amherst Negreenhouseupdate". Negreenhouseupdate.Info.

Mullen, J.M. and Cobb, G.S. (1984). Leaf spot of southern magnolia caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Plant Disease 68(11):1013–1015.

Myung, I.S., Choi, J.K., Lee, J.Y., Yoon, M.J., Hwang, E.Y. and Shim, H.S. (2013). First report of bacterial leaf spot of witloof, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Korea. Plant Disease97(10):1376.

Nakkeeran, S., Kavitha, K., Chandrasekar, G., Renukadevi, P. and Fernando, W.G.D. (2006). Induction of plant defense compound by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA 23 and Bacillus subtilis BSCBE 4 in controlling damping-off of hot pepper caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Biocontrol Sci. and Technol. 16(4):403–16.

Newberry, E.A., Paret, M.L., Jones, J.B. and Bost, S.C. (2016). First report of leaf spot of pumpkin caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Tennessee. Plant Disease 100(11):2159–2160.

Patel, N., Kobayashi, D.Y., Noto, A.J., Baldwin, A.C., Simon, J.E. and Wyenandt, C.A. (2019). First Report of Pseudomonas cichorii Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot on Sweet Basil ( Ocimum basilicum ) in New Jersey. Plant Disease 103(10):2666–2666. doi:

Paula Wilkie, J. and Dye, D.W. (1974). Pseudomonas cichorii causing tomato and celery diseases in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 17(2):123–130. doi:

Pedro, De. M.A. and Cava, F. (2015). Structural constraints and dynamics of bacterial cell wall architecture. Frontiers in Microbiology 6. doi: 2015.00449.

Piening, L.J. and MacPherson, D.J. (1985). Stem melanosis, a disease of spring wheat caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology7(2):168–172.

Pinto de Torres, A. and Carreno Ibanez, I. (1983). Pseudomonas cichorii (Swingle) Stapp, associated with gummy spots on Armking nectarines; locality Padre Hurtado, Chile. Agricultura Tecnica 43(3):283–284.

Putnam, M.L. (1999). Bacterial blight, a new disease of Lobelia ricardii caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Plant Disease 83(10):966.

Raid, R.N. (2004). Celery Diseases and Their Managment, Dalam. Naqvi, S.A.M.H. 2004. Diseases of Fruit and Vegetables : Diagnosis and Management. Vol. I. Kluwer Academic Publisher. USA. ISBN : 1-4020-2606-4.

Ruan, H., Shi, N., Du, Y., Chen, F., Yang, X., Gan, L. and Dai, Y. (2019). First report of Pseudomonas cichorii causing tomato pith necrosis in Fujian Province, China. Plant Disease 103(1):145.

Sacherer, P., Défago, G. and Haas, D. (1994). Extracellular protease and phospholipase C are controlled by the global regulatory gene gacA in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. FEMS Microbiology Letters 116:155–160.

Semangoen, H. (1989). Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Krisan. Dalam Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Hortikultura Di Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press. P.O. Box. 14 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta. Cetakan Pertama. ISBN, 979-420-137-5.

Sherif, M. (2014). Bacteria. Structure. Shape. Presentation Description. (Http://Www. Authorstream.Com/Presentation/Aq32-1271280-Lecture-No-2-Bacteria-Structure-Shape/ Diunduh, 3-2-2020.

Sofialena (2017). Segitiga Penyakit Tanaman. Mulawarman University Press. Samarinda. Mulawarman University PRESS, 90 hlm. LPPM Universitas Mulawarman, Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur,Indonesia 75123.

Swingle, D. B. (1925). Center rot of French endive or wilt ofchicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Phytopathology, 15, 730.

Souza, De. J. T., Weller, D.M. and Raaijmakers, J.M. (2003). Frequency, diversity, and activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producing Fluorescent pseudomonas spp. in Dutch take-all decline soils. Phytopathology 93(1):54–63. doi: 2003.93.1.54.

Stapp, C. (1928). Chizomycetes (Spaltpilze Oder Bakterien). InP. S o r a u e r ( Ed .), Handbuch Der Pflanzenkrankheiten(Pp. 1–295).

Strider, D.L. and Jones, R.K. (1977). Bacterial leaf spot and bud blight of chrysanthemum. North Carolina Flower Growers’ Bulletin 21:7–8.

Sugiyama, L.S., Bushe, B.C., Heller, W.P. and Keith, L.M. (2018). First Report of Pseudomonas cichorii Causing Bacterial Leaf Blight of Plumeria pudica in Hawaii. Plant Disease102(5):1025–1025. doi:

Suhardi, Hanudin, Handayati, W., dan Saepulloh, A. (2007). Skrining Kemangkusan Mikroba Antagonis terhadap Penyakit pada Tanaman Krisan. J. Hort. 17(2):175–180. doi:

Suhardi, Sarwana, R.T., Saefullah, A. and Hanudin (2003). Pengendalian Penyakit Karat (Puccinia horiana) pada Krisan dengan Varietas Tahan, Perompesan, dan Fungisida. Laporan Hasil Penelitian Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias T. A. 2003, 7 hlm.

Suniti, N.W. (2016). Buku Ajar Epidemiologi Penyakit Tumbuhan. Jurusan Agroekoteknologi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana Denpasar, Bali.

Sutariati, G.A.K. dan Wahab, A. (2010). Isolasi dan uji kemampuan rizobakteri indigenous sebagai agensia pengendali hayati penyakit pada tanaman cabai. J. Hort. 20(1):86–95.

Swingle, D.B. (1925). Center Rot of French Endive or Wilt Ofchicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Phytopathology, 15, 730.

Taufiq, M.A., Wahab, A. dan Hidayat, S.H. (2010). Mekanisme ketahanan terinduksi oleh plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) pada tanaman cabai terinfeksi cucumber mozaic virus (CMV)’. J. Hort. 20(3):274–83.

Testen, A.L., Nahson, J., Mamiro, D.P. and Miller, S.A. (2015). First report of tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Tanzania. Plant Disease 99(7):1035.

Trivedi, B.M., Patel, P.N. and Verma, J.P. (1978). Zonate spot of cabbage in India. Science and Culture 44(4):182–183.

Tsai, C.H., PaoJen, A., YunSheng, L., MeiDe, C., ShuLing, H. and YuHua, P. (2014). Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot of tomato caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Taiwan. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research 63(2):143–150.

Uddin, W. and McCarter, S.M. (1996). First report of Rhododendron leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Plant Disease 80(8):960.

Van der Plank, J.E. (1963). Plant Diseases. Epidemics and Control. Academic Press, New York and London.

Virginia Tech. (2015). Bacterial leaf blight caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. December 2015. Retrieved 2019-06-20.

Vishwakarma, K., Kumar, V., Tripathi, D.K. and Sharma, S. (2018). Characterization of rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea for multitrait plant growth promotion and their viability studies on carriers. Environmental Sustainability 1:253–265.

Wick, R. (2020). Chrysanthemum – Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas Cichorii). Available at:

Young, J.M., Watson, D.R.W., Fletcher, M.J. and Kemp, W.J. (1987). Isolation of Pseudomonas cichorii from plants in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 30(4):511–516. doi: 1987. 10417966.

Yu, S.M. (2012). First report of Pseudomonas chicorii associated with leaf spot on soybean in South Korea. Plant Disease 96(142).

Zhang, S. and Fu, Y. (2013). First Report of Bacterial Leaf Spot on Cichorium intybus Caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Florida. Plant Disease 97(6):837–837. doi:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Balai Pengelola Alih Teknologi Pertanian
Jalan Salak No.22, Bogor 16151
Telp. : (0251) 8382563
Faks. : (0251) 8382567
E-mail :
Website :


Creative Commons License
JP3 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats