PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI (P.cichorii) (Swingle 1925) (STAPP 1928) PADA TANAMAN KRISAN (D.grandiflora Tzvelev) DAN UPAYA PENGENDALIANNYA DI INDONESIA/Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease (Swingle 1925) (STAPP 1928) in Chrysanthemum and Its Control in Indonesia

Hanudin Hanudin, Lia Sanjaya, Budi Marwoto

Abstract


Bacterial leaf blight caused by Pseudomonas cichorii is a major disease in chrysanthemum plants almost all over the world. In Indonesia, this pathogen can cause damage to chrysanthemum 10- 60%. Bacteria spread from one plant to another through water droplets from modern irrigation networks as well as conventional irrigation. P. cichorii is a polyphagic pathogen, which infects succulents and others across continents with varying incidence. Symptoms of transmission of this pathogen in each type of plant are always different, and effective control methods have not been found. This article discusses the virulence of pathogens, the incidence of transmission, and recommendations for controlling bacterial leaf blight on chrysanthemums in Indonesia. A search of various references from within and outside the country shows that P. cichorii can be controlled by combining several methods, namely (a) the use of tolerant varieties (Puspita Nusantara, Puspa Kania, Dwina Kencana, Dwina Pelangi, Pasopati, Paras Ratu, and Wastu Kania), (b) technical culture (extracting infected leaves and watering in the morning), and (c) application of synthetic chemical bactericides with active ingredients of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, or biopesticides with active bacterial isolates of the antagonistic bacteria Bacillus subtilis MI600, and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937, and combination of P. fluorescens Pf Irana with Pf Slada-2.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, P. chicorii, bacterial leaf blight disease, epidemiology, control

 

Abstrak

Hawar daun bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Pseudomonas cichorii merupakan penyakit utama pada tanaman krisan hampir di seluruh penjuru dunia. Di Indonesia, patogen ini dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada tanaman krisan 10-60%. Bakteri menyebar dari satu tanaman ke tanaman lain melalui tetesan air dari jaringan irigasi modern maupun penyiraman konvensional. P. cichorii merupakan patogen yang bersifat polifag, yang menginfeksi tanaman sukulen dan lainnya di seluruh benua dengan insidensi bervariasi. Gejala penularan patogen ini pada setiap jenis tanaman selalu berbeda, dan belum ditemukan metode pengendalian yang efektif. Artikel ini membahas virulenitas patogen, insidensi penularan, dan rekomendasi pengendalian hawar daun bakteri pada tanaman krisan di Indonesia. Penelusuran dari berbagai referensi dari dalam dan luar negeri menunjukkan P. cichorii dapat dikendalikan dengan memadukan beberapa metode, yaitu (a) penggunaan varietas toleran (Puspita Nusantara, Puspa Kania, Dwina Kencana, Dwina Pelangi, Pasopati, Paras Ratu, dan Wastu Kania), (b) kultur teknis (perompesan daun terinfeksi dan penyiraman pada pagi hari), serta (c) aplikasi bakterisida kimia sintetik berbahan aktif hydrogen peroxide dan peroxyacetic acid, atau biopestisida berbahan aktif isolat bakteri antagonis Bacillus subtilis MI600, dan B. amyloliquefaciens IN937, serta kombinasi P. fluorescens Pf Irana dengan Pf Slada-2.

Kata kunci: Krisan, P. chicorii, bakteri hawar daun, epidemiologi, pengendalian.


Keywords


Chrysanthemum; P. chicorii; bacterial leaf blight disease; epidemiology; control; Krisan; P. chicorii; bakteri hawar daun; epidemiologi; pengendalian

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v39n2.2020.p105-116

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