Pengendalian Kutu Kebul dan Nematoda Parasitik Secara Kultur Teknik pada Tanaman Kentang

Wiwin Setiawati, Aziz Azirin Asandhi, Budi Marwoto, A Sumantri, - Hermawan

Abstract


Bemisia tabaci dan Meloidogyne spp. merupakan OPT penting pada tanaman kentang. Pengendalian secara kultur teknik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi masalah OPT tersebut. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran Lembang sejak bulan Juni sampai dengan Nopember 2002. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui efektivitas pengendalian B. tabaci dan Meloidogyne spp. secara kultur teknik pada tanaman kentang agar aman dikonsumsi dan ramah lingkungan. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah dengan 4 ulangan. Sebagai petak utama adalah pengelolaan tanah yang terdiri atas tanpa solarisasi dan tanpa subsoiling serta solarisasi dan subsoiling. Sebagai anak petak adalah sistem tanam, yang terdiri atas kentang monokultur, kentang–bawang daun, kentang–tagetes, dan kentang–lobak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengendalian OPT secara kultur teknik (pengelolaan tanah dan sistem tanam) dapat menekan populasi OPT penting pada tanaman kentang. Tumpangsari antara kentang-bawang daun, kentang–tagetes, dan kentang–lobak dapat menekan serangan hama B. tabaci, M. persicae, P. operculella, dan T. palmi, serta nematoda Meloidogyne spp. pada tanaman kentang, sementara perlakuan subsoiling dan solarisasi serta tumpangsari antara tanaman kentang dengan tagetes dapat menekan populasi hama B. tabaci, M. persicae, P. operculella, dan T. palmi, masing–masing sebesar 46,25; 78,65; 31,48, dan 35,38%. Di samping itu, perlakuan subsoiling dan solarisasi serta tumpangsari antara tanaman kentang dengan tagetes dapat menekan populasi nematoda Meloidogyne spp. dan nematoda lainnya seperti Rotylenchulus sp, Helicotylenchus sp, Tylenchulus sp., Xiphynema sp., dan Trichodorus sp pada tanaman kentang, dengan hasil panen cukup tinggi yang berkisar antara 9,36–10,05 t/ha. Pengelolaan tanah dan penggunaan tanaman yang bersifat antagonis dan perangkap di dalam sistem tumpangsari, ternyata dapat mengurangi kepadatan populasi OPT pada tanaman kentang.

Cultural practices control technique of whitefly and parasitic nematode on potato. Bemisia tabaci and Meloidogyne spp. are important pests on potato. Cultural practices are alternative control to these pests. The study was conducted at Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute (IVEGRI) from June to November 2002. The purpose of this experiment was to determine effectiveness of cultural practices control technique for B. tabaci and Meloidogyne spp. nematode which environmental and food safety concern. Split plot design was used in this experiment with 4 replications. Soil management was used as main plot, consisted of without solarization and without subsoiling; and solarization and subsoiling. Cropping system used as subplot were potato monocrop, potato–buncing onion, potato–marigold and potato–radish. The results showed that cultural practices control (soil management and cropping system) could reduce population of pests on potato. Population of pests such as B. tabaci, M. persicae, P. operculella, T. palmi, and nematode were lower on cropping system between potato–buncing onion, potato–marigold, and potato–radish. The use of subsoiling, solarization and cropping system between potato and marigold could reduce population of B. tabaci, M. persicae, P. operculella, T. palmi up to 46.25, 78.65, 31.48, and 35.38% respectively. The used of subsoiling, solarization, and cropping system between potato and marigold suppressed population of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematoda such as Rotylenchulus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Tylenchulus sp., Xiphynema sp., and Trichodorus sp. on potato and gave the highest yield up to 9.36–10.05 t/ha compared with other treatments. Soil management and the used of antagonistic or trap crop in cropping system could effectively retard the population of pest and deseases on patato.


Keywords


Bemisia tabaci; Meloidogyne spp.; Solanum tuberosum; Cultural practices; Cropping system

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v15n4.2005.p%25p

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