Perbaikan Produksi Jamur Tiram Pleurotus ostreatus Strain Florida dengan Modifikasi Bahan Baku Utama Substrat

Ety Sumiati, E Suryaningsih, - Puspitasari

Abstract


Daya hasil jamur tiram putih masih perlu diperbaiki. Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan jenis bahan baku alternatif selain serbuk kayu gergaji albasia dengan penambahan bahan aditif berupa bekatul untuk budidaya jamur tiram putih. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah  dengan 3 ulangan. Petak utama adalah bekatul konsentrasi 5, 10, 15, dan 20%. Anak petak 13 jenis bahan baku utama substrat. Bibit jamur tiram putih menggunakan spesies Pleurotus ostreatus strain Florida yang diintroduksi dari Applied Plant Research, Belanda. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran , Lembang  (1.250 m dpl.), Jawa Barat dari bulan November 2003 sampai Mei 2004. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa aplikasi substrat serbuk kayu gergaji albasia dikombinasikan dengan bekatul 5% menghasilkan bobot segar jamur tiram putih tertinggi, yaitu 2.317,36 g/kg bobot substrat basah dengan efisiensi biologis  (EB) 81,03%. Hasil tersebut dicapai selama  65 hari  masa berproduksi dengan jumlah panen 12 kali. Selain serbuk kayu gergaji (SKG) albasia, bahan baku substrat berupa SKG campuran, daun pisang kering, jerami padi, rumput alang-alang, dan bagas/ampas tebu dengan penambahan bekatul antara 5-15%, juga merupakan bahan baku alternatif yang dapat digunakan sebagai baku substrat untuk budidaya jamur tiram putih. Hasil bobot segar jamur tiram dari berbagai jenis bahan baku alternatif, yaitu antara 600 sampai 1.200 g/kg bobot basah substrat dengan nilai EB antara 10 sampai 35%

The goal of this experiment was to find out alternatively suitable materials for substrates  other than sawdust combined with the application of rice bran as additive materials. A split plot design with 3 replications was set up. Main plot was rice bran concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20%, respectively. Subplot was 13 kinds of substrate materials. The experiment was carried out at Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute in Lembang (1,250 m asl), West Java from November 2003 to May 2004. Oyster mushroom species used in the experiment was Pleurotus ostreatus strain Florida from Applied Plant Research, The Netherlands. The results of the experiment revealed that application of sawdust albizia in combination with 5% of rice bran produced the highest fresh yield of white oyster mushroom, viz. 2 317.36 g/kg wet substrate with biological efficiency (BE) of 81.03%. This yield was produced during 65 days with  12 times of total number of harvests. Other kinds of substrates, viz. mixed sawdust, dry banana leaves,  rice straw, sedge grass leaves, and sugar cane bagasse in combination with rice bran of 5 to 15%, could be applied as  alternative substrate materials other than sawdust of albizia for cultivating white oyster mushroom. The yield of fresh oyster mushroom using those kinds of alternative substrates mentioned, viz.  600 to 1,200 g/kg wet substrate with BE of 10 to 35%.


Keywords


Pleurotus ostreatus strain Florida; Substrates; Composition; Rice bran; Yield.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n2.2006.p%25p

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