Pertumbuhan, Hasil, dan Kelayakan Finansial Penggunaan Mulsa dan Pupuk Buatan pada Usahatani Cabai Merah di Luar Musim

Thomas Agoes Soetiarso, Mieke Ameriana, Laksminiwati Prabaningrum, Nani Sumarni

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pertumbuhan, hasil, dan kelayakan finansial penggunaan mulsa dan pupuk buatan pada usahatani cabai merah di luar musim. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Margahayu, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran Lembang, Bandung, Jawa Barat (±1.250 m dpl) pada musim hujan (Oktober 1999 – Juli 2000). Rancangan percobaan menggunakan petak terpisah. Mulsa sebagai petak utama dan sebagai anak petak adalah dosis pemupukan berimbang, serta ulangan 3 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, tidak terjadi interaksi yang nyata antara mulsa plastik hitam perak dan dosis pupuk (NPK) terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil cabai. Secara independen, penggunaan mulsa plastik hitam perak dapat meningkatkan jumlah buah sehat per tanaman, bobot buah sehat per tanaman, dan bobot buah sehat per petak secara nyata. Penggunaan mulsa plastik hitam perak juga dapat menekan serangan Thrips, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kerusakan akibat serangan ulat grayak, Spodoptera litura. Penggunaan ketiga dosis pupuk (NPK) yang diuji tidak memberikan perbedaan yang nyata terhadap jumlah buah sehat per tanaman, bobot buah sehat per tanaman, bobot buah sehat per petak, dan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kerusakan tanaman cabai oleh Thrips dan S. litura. Secara teknis penggunaan mulsa plastik hitam perak dan dosis pupuk (150 kg N/ha + 150 kg P2O5/ha + 150 kg K2O/ha) memberikan hasil produksi cabai yang tinggi (147,36 kg per 220 m2) dan efisien dari segi penggunaan pupuk. Secara ekonomis hasil analisis anggaran parsial juga menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tersebut merupakan perlakuan yang paling menguntungkan, ditunjukkan oleh tingkat pengembalian marjinalnya paling tinggi (557,51%). Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai teknologi alternatif untuk usahatani cabai merah di luar musim.

The objectives of this experiment were to assess the growth, yield, and financial feasibility of the use of mulch and inorganic fertilizer on hot pepper off-season cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Margahayu Experimental Garden, Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute, Lembang, Bandung, West Jawa (± 1,250 m asl) by using split plot design. Mulch was designed as main plot, while balanced-fertilization was arranged as subplot. Each combination was repeated 3 times. Results indicated that there was no significant interaction between the use of black-silver plastic mulch and (NPK) fertilizer dosages. Independently, the use of black-silver plastic mulch could significantly increase the number and weight of healthy fruits per plant, and the weight of healthy fruits per plot. The use of black-silver plastic mulch could also suppress the infestation by Thrips, but unable to prevent yield loss caused by Spodoptera litura. The three dosage levels of (NPK) fertilizer did not show any significant effects to the number and weight of healthy fruits per plant, and the weight of healthy fruits per plot. Furthermore, these treatments also did not show any relationships with yield loss caused by Thrips and S. litura. Technically, the use of plastic mulch and fertilizer (150 kg N/ha + 150 kg P2O5/ha + 150 kg K2O/ha) provided a relatively high yield (147.36 kg per 220 m2) and indicated high efficiency of fertilizer use. Meanwhile, partial budget analysis also showed that such treatment provided the highest profit as indicated by highest of marginal return (557.51%). It suggests that this technological component may be used as an alternative agronomic practices in hot pepper off-season cultivation.

Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Mulch; Balanced fertilizers application; Financial feasibility

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n1.2006.p%25p

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