Pengaruh Transportasi, Tingkat Kemekaran Bunga, dan Kultivar Anggrek Pot Berbunga terhadap Ketahanan Segar pada Rumah Sere

Dwi Amiarsi, - Yulianingsih, S D Sabari

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan ketahanan segar bunga anggrek dendrobium pot di rumah sere penyinaran 55%. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Jakarta dari bulan Juli 1998 sampai bulan April 1999. Tanaman pot anggrek Dendrobium berbunga yang digunakan dalam penelitian merupakan tanaman yang berbunga pertama atau kedua. Tingkat kemekaran bunga yang dicoba  terdiri dari lima taraf yaitu 0-5% bunga mekar, 25–30% bunga mekar, 45–50% bunga mekar, 70–75% bunga mekar dan 90–95% bunga mekar. Pengangkutan dilakukan menggunakan mobil berpendingin (suhu 10-130C; RH 75-100%) selama 10 jam (±308,3 km). Penelitian dilakukan dengan rancangan acak lengkap, pola faktorial dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kemekaran bunga 0-5% baik  untuk kultivar anggrek Dendrobium Bandung Pink maupun kultivar Dendrobium Sakura White masing-masing mempunyai umur kesegaran 36,4 dan 37,9 hari dengan persentase kemekaran bunga 87,5% dan 92,5%, waktu kemekaran bunga maksimum 17,7 dan 18,3 hari, bunga pertama layu 12,9 dan 14,5 hari. Perlakuan tersebut dapat mempertahankan kualitas bunga tetap prima dan dapat memperpanjang masa kesegaran tanaman pot berbunga setelah pengangkutan.


The experiment was conducted to find out the flower shelf-life of potted Dendrobium at screenhouse. The experiment was done at Research Institute of Ornamentals Plant Jakarta from July 1998 to April 1999. Potted Dendrobium used in the experiment was bearing first or second flowers. In this experiment, five blooming stages (0-5%, 25-30%, 45-50%, 70-75%, and 90-95% bud opening) of Dendrobium orchid were used. Potted plants were transported from Jakarta–Bandung vice-versa using refrigated vehicle (10-13oC of temperature and 75-100% RH) for about 10 hours (±308.3 km). The experiment was arranged in a factorial completely randomized design with 3 replications. The results of the experiment indicated that potted Dendrobium cultivar Bandung Pink and Sakura White with blooming stage of 0-5% gave the best keeping quality with percentage of bud opening 85.7 and 92.5%, time of maximal blooming 17.7 and 18.3 days, time of first wilting flowers 12.9 and 14.5 days, and shelf-life 36.4 and 37.9 days respectively. By applying those treatment the period of potted plant flower shelf-life could be extended and quality after transportation could be maintained.


Keywords


Dendrobium sp.; Flowering potted plant; Postproduction; Transportation; Flower maturation; Shelf-life

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n1.2006.p%25p

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