Teknik Kultur Anther pada Pemuliaan anthurium

Budi Winarto, Fitri Rachmawati

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Kultur anther merupakan teknik baru yang telah dikembangkan pada beberapa tanaman untuk mendapatkan galur murni melalui produksi tanaman haploid ganda. Keberadaan tanaman ini berpengaruh nyata terhadap perbaikan dan peningkatan efisiensi program pemuliaan dan perbenihan tanaman. Pada anthurium, teknik ini belum pernah dikembangkan dan dilaporkan, sehingga studi awal kultur anther bermanfaat untuk program pemuliaan dan perbenihan tanaman ini. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui tahap perkembangan spadik, rasio tahap perkembangan mikrospora dan viabilitasnya, mendapatkan teknik isolasi anther dan medium inisiasinya yang potensial untuk kultur anther. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dan Plant Research International, Wageningen-Belanda dari bulan Juni 2003 hingga Agustus 2005. Anthurium yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah anthurium andreanum Linden ex André. cv. Amigo, Carnaval, dan Tropical. Pengamatan secara periodik, pengecatan menggunakan DAPI dan FDA, pengembangan 4 teknik isolasi (T-1 s/d T-4), dan seleksi medium inisiasi dilakukan dalam percobaan ini. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa 3 kultivar anthurium yang diuji memiliki karakter yang berbeda dalam hal waktu munculnya kepala putik, pemunculan putik tercepat terdapat pada kultivar Amigo, sedangkan waktu muncul serbuk sari relatif sama. Jumlah mikrospora per kotak spora terbanyak ditemukan pada kultivar Carnaval. Rasio tahap perkembangan mikrospora berubah seiring perubahan tahap perkembangan spadik dengan persentase late-uninucleate tertinggi (76%) tercatat saat spadik berada pada masa transisi. Viabilitas mikrospora berkisar antara 40-70% dengan persentase tertinggi (70%) ditunjukkan oleh kultivar Amigo. T-1 merupakan teknik isolasi yang potensial digunakan dalam mengembangkan kultur anther pada anthurium. Medium MMS merupakan medium yang paling potensial digunakan dalam kultur anther anthurium. Kultivar Tropical merupakan kultivar yang potensial digunakan sebagai tanaman model dalam kultur anther anthurium. Hasil-hasil tersebut bermanfaat dalam membuat protokol kultur anther pada anthurium.

ABSTRACT. Winarto, B. and F. Rachmawati. 2007. Development of anther culture technique on anthurium. Anther culture is a new technique developed on several plants in obtaining pure line of plant via double haploid plant production. The existence of such plant has significantly increased and improved plant breeding and seed production programs efficiency. In anthurium so far the techniques have not developed and reported yet, therefore this study is important and benefit for the plant in relation with improving the plant breeding and seed production programs. The research objectives were too find out the development stage of spadix, ratio of microspore development stages and their viability, to findout potential isolation technique and initiation medium for anther and/or microspore culture of anthurium. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Ornamental Crop Research Institute and Plant Research International, Wageningen, Netherlands, from June 2003 till August 2005. Anthurium used in the study was anthurium andreanum Linden ex André. cv. Amigo, Carnaval, and Tropical. Periodical observation, DAPI and FDA staining, developing 4 isolation techniques (T-1 to T-4), and selection of initiation media were carried out during this research. Results of this study indicated that 3 anthurium cultivars had different characters with the fastest noticeable time of stigma observed in Amigo, while visible time of pollen was relatively similar. Higher number of microspore was recorded in Carnaval. Ratio of microspore development stages changed gradually dealing with alteration of spadix growth and high percentage of late-uninucleate stage (76%) was observed on spadix in transition stage of its growth that was characterized with color alteration area of scale like corola. Microspore viability was between 40-70% with the highest percentage (70%) obtained by Amigo. T-1 was a prospective technique developed for anthurium anther culture, while MMS was a potential initiation medium for the technique. Anthurium cv. Tropical was potentially used as a plant model for anther culture of anthurium. Results of this study can give benefit in establishing anther culture protocol for anthurium.

Keywords


anthurium andreanum; Kultur anther; Teknik isolasi; Medium inisiasi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n2.2007.p%25p

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