Heterosis dan Heterobeltiosis pada Persilangan 5 Genotip Cabai dengan Metode Dialil

Rinda Kirana, Eri Sofiari

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Lima genotip cabai merah yang dipilih secara acak disilangkan satu sama lain menurut disain persilangan dialil di Rumah Kasa Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang pada September 2004. Evaluasi heterosis dan heterobeltiosis dilaksanakan mulai dari bulan Maret sampai Oktober 2005 menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok yang diulang 3 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa heterosis dan heterobeltiosis terjadi untuk karakter tinggi tanaman, umur berbunga, umur berbuah, panjang buah, dan jumlah buah per tanaman pada populasi F1 hasil persilangan 2 x 14, 14 x 30, 17 x 14, dan 30 x 14. Oleh karena itu peluang pembentukan hibrida dapat diharapkan pada keempat genotip F1 tersebut. Heterosis positif untuk tinggi tanaman berkisar antara 1,84-25,41% dan heterobeltiosis antara 1,63-20,78%. Untuk umur berbunga terjadi heterobeltiosis negatif, berbunga lebih cepat berkisar antara -9,18 sampai dengan -0,19%. Untuk jumlah buah per tanaman dan bobot buah per tanaman, heterosis terjadi berturut-turut 2,27-93,40% dan 6,32-22,84%.

ABSTRACT. Kirana, R and E. Sofiari. 2007. Heterosis and Heterobeltiosis in 5 Genotypes of Peppers Using Diallel Crosses. Five genotypes of randomly selected peppers were intercrossed in diallel mating design in the Screen House of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute on September 2004. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis evaluation were conducted in a field experiment at Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute from March until October 2005 using a randomized block design, replicated 3 times. The results indicated that in general heterosis and heterobeltiosis occurred on plant height, date of flowering, date of fruit set, fruit length, and number of fruits per plant on 4 population of F1 resulted from crossing of 2 x 14, 14 x 30, 17 x 14, and 30 x 14. Therefore the heterosis effect to create F1 hybrid could be expected on the 4 genotypes of F1. Positive heterosis for plant height range from 1.84 to 25.41% with heterobeltiosis range from 1.63 to 20.78%. For flowering date, negative heterobeltiosis occurred with value ranging from -9.18 to -0.19%. Fruit weight and fruit number per plant heterosis occurred successively 2.27 to 93.40 % and 6.32 to 22.84 %, respectively.

Keywords


Capsicum sp.; Heterosis; Heterobeltiosis; Dialil

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n2.2007.p%25p

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