Identifikasi Potensi dan Kendala Produksi Paprika di Rumah Plastik

Nikardi Gunadi, Tonny Kustoeni Moekasan, - Subhan

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Survai eksplorasi dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus-Oktober 2003 di daerah sentra produksi paprika Lembang, Bandung, Jawa Barat, untuk mendapatkan gambaran teknologi produksi sayuran di rumah plastik, khususnya paprika, serta mengidentifikasi potensi, peluang, dan masalah budidaya yang ada. Petani responden berjumlah 17 orang dan dipilih secara purposif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa paprika adalah jenis sayuran utama yang diusahakan di rumah plastik, kemudian diikuti oleh tomat, tomat ceri, serta mentimun. Pada umumnya, petani responden mengencerkan nutrisi sebanyak 4–14 l nutrisi per 1.000 l air dan mengaplikasikannya dengan dosis 750–2.000 ml/tanaman/hari, sebanyak 3-5 kali/hari. Organisme pengganggu tanaman yang paling merugikan adalah hama thrips, dan berturut-turut diikuti oleh penyakit layu fusarium, dan embun tepung. Perkiraan biaya produksi per tanaman paprika berkisar antara Rp.7.000-Rp.10.000/tanaman. Pengeluaran terbesar dalam biaya produksi adalah untuk nutrisi, dan secara berturut-turut diikuti oleh tenaga kerja, pestisida, benih, dan media. Gerai yang banyak digunakan untuk memasarkan produk adalah pedagang pengumpul, perusahaan swasta, dan koperasi. Kisaran harga maksimal biasanya terjadi antara bulan Januari sampai Mei, sedangkan kisaran harga minimal seringkali terjadi antara bulan Juni sampai Agustus. Indikator efisiensi pengusahaan beberapa jenis sayuran di rumah plastik menunjukkan bahwa rasio penerimaan biaya untuk paprika, tomat, tomat ceri, dan mentimun menunjukkan besaran yang bernilai positif (menguntungkan). Kendala utama sistem produksi sayuran di rumah plastik berdasarkan peringkat kepentingannya adalah insiden hama penyakit, kualitas konstruksi rumah plastik, ketersediaan modal, ketersediaan tenaga kerja, ketersediaan nutrisi, ketersediaan pestisida, ketersediaan air/pengairan, ketersediaan media dan sarananya, fluktuasi harga, dan ketersediaan informasi teknis. Potensi pengembangan yang tercermin dari potensi pasar domestik dan ekspor masih menunjukkan prospek baik. Hal yang perlu dicermati berkaitan dengan kemungkinan pengembangan lebih lanjut adalah ketergantungan yang tinggi terhadap beberapa input produksi utama, antara lain benih, dan plastik UV.

ABSTRACT. Adiyoga, W., N. Gunadi, T. K. Moekasan, and Subhan. 2007. Identification of Potential and Constraint of Sweet Pepper Cultivation in Plastichouse. An exploratory survey was carried out in August to October 2003 in sweet pepper production center, Lembang, Bandung, West Java, to obtain general situation of vegetable production technology, especially sweet pepper, in plastichouse, and to identify potentials and constraints of existing cultural practices. There were 17 interviewed farmers that were selected purposively. The results showed that sweet pepper is the most important vegetable cultivated in plastichouse, followed by tomato, cherry tomato, and cucumber. Farmers usually mix 4–14 l of nutrient with 1000 l of water, apply with the dosage of 750–2000 ml/plant/day, as many as 3-5 times/day. The most important pest is thrips, followed by some diseases, such as fusarium wilt, and downy mildew. Estimated production cost per plant is between Rp. 7.000 to Rp. 10.000. The biggest expense is for nutrients, followed by labor, pesticide, seed, and media, subsequently. Outlets mostly used by respondents are assembly markets/traders, private companies, and cooperatives. Maximum price of sweet pepper usually occurs between January and May, while the minimum price frequently occurs between June and August. Efficiency indicators indicate that the R/C’s for tomato, sweet pepper, cherry tomato, and cucumber are positive (profitable). Main constraints of vegetable production in plastichouse based on their rank of importance, as perceived by farmers are pest and disease incidence, quality of plastichouse construction, capital availability, labor availability, nutrient availability, pesticide availability, water/irrigation availability, media availability, price fluctuation, and technical information availability. Potentials for further development as reflected by domestic and export market opportunities, are still promising. However, further development should be pursued cautiously, since there is a high dependence on main inputs that are still imported, such as seeds and UV-plastic.

Keywords


Capsicum annuum var grossum L.; Paprika; Pengelolaan nutrisi; Konstruksi rumah plastik; Rasio penerimaan biaya

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n1.2007.p%25p

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