Persepsi Petani Sayuran Tentang Dampak Perubahan Iklim di Sulawesi Selatan (Perception of Vegetable Farmers on the Impact of Climate Change in South Sulawesi)

Witono Adiyoga, Rofik Sinung Basuki

Abstract


Walaupun masih terdapat ketidakpastian tentang kapan, bagaimana, dan di mana perubahan iklim akan berdampak negatif terhadap produksi pertanian dan ketahanan pangan, sebagian besar ilmuwan sepakat bahwa dampaknya terhadap sektor pertanian di daerah tropis akan semakin parah dibandingkan di daerah temperate. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari persepsi petani tentang dampak perubahan iklim terhadap variabilitas cuaca yang terjadi dan dampak perubahan iklim terhadap usahatani. Penelitian survei dilaksanakan pada ekosistem sayuran di dataran tinggi dan rendah Sulawesi Selatan dari bulan Juni hingga Agustus 2012. Pada setiap ekosistem, 110 petani sayuran dipilih secara acak (total = 220 responden). Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui metode wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden lintas ekosistem dan pola musim mempersepsi tiga jenis kejadian alam akibat perubahan iklim secara signifikan yang menempati tiga urutan tertinggi pada awal musim tanam, yaitu (a) pola curah hujan sangat tidak menentu, (b) suhu udara meningkat, dan (c) musim hujan datang lebih awal, diikuti oleh minggu-minggu kering. Mayoritas responden juga mempersepsi tiga jenis kejadian cuaca ekstrim akibat perubahan iklim signifikannya menempati tiga urutan tertinggi, yaitu (a) sinar matahari sangat terik, (b) gelombang dan temperatur udara panas dan (c) kekeringan. Kebakaran hutan, asap hasil pembakaran bahan bakar oleh industri, asap kendaraan bermotor, dan penggundulan hutan secara konsisten, dikemukakan sebagian besar petani lintas ekosistem dan pola musim sebagai faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan iklim. Sementara itu, separuh lebih responden menyatakan ketidaksetujuan/keragu-raguannya bahwa usahatani sayuran yang dilakukan secara terus menerus, pembakaran limbah tanaman/rumah tangga, penggunaan pupuk/pestisida kimia berlebih, penggunaan kayu bakar, dan penggunaan air irigasi tinggi memberikan kontribusi cukup signifikan terhadap terjadinya perubahan iklim. Sebagian besar responden mempersepsi tiga dampak perubahan iklim terhadap usahatani yang signifikansinya menempati tiga urutan tertinggi, yaitu (a) risiko kegagalan panen yang semakin tinggi, (b) risiko kerugian usahatani yang semakin tinggi dan berpengaruh terhadap keberlanjutan usahatani, serta (c) suhu yang semakin tinggi menyebabkan peningkatan serangan hama dan munculnya hama baru. Kegiatan edukasi terpadu melalui penyuluhan pertanian maupun sekolah lapang iklim perlu terus dilakukan untuk mengoreksi beberapa perbedaan persepsi tentang penyebab perubahan iklim.

Keywords

Sayuran; Dataran rendah; Dataran tinggi; Variabilitas iklim; Dampak perubahan iklim

Abstract

Vegetable farmers’ perception of climate change impacts in South Sulawesi. Even though there are still uncertainties regarding when, how, and where the climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production and food security, most scientists agree that the impact of climate change on agricultural sector is more severe in the tropical regions as compared to the temperate regions. The objective of this study was to examine farmers’ perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on weather/climate variability and on their vegetable farms. A survey was carried out in lowland and highland vegetable areas of South Sulawesi in June until August 2012. In total, there were 220 respondents randomly selected for interview by using a structured questionnaire. Results suggest that most respondents across different ecosystem and seasonal pattern perceive three climates variability as the most important impacts of climate change i.e. (a) high uncertainty of rainfall pattern, (b) increasing air temperature and (c) earlier start of rainy season followed by dry weeks. Those respondents also perceive three most important extreme weathers, such as (a) intense heat/sun, (b) hot air temperature and waves and (c) long dry season. Forest fire, smoke from industrial fuel burning, smoke from motor vehicles and deforestation are consistently identified as factors that significantly contribute to the existence of climate change. Meanwhile, more than half of respondents are disagree or in doubt that continuous vegetable cultivation, crop/household waste, excessive use of fertilizers, and pesticides, use of cooking woods, and excessive use of irrigation water as factors that contribute to climate change. Most respondents perceive three most important impacts of climate change to their vegetable farms i.e. (a) increasing crop failure risk, (b) increasing financial loss risk that directly affects farm sustainability, and (c) increasing air temperature that tends to increase more severe pest/disease incidence and bring out new pests and diseases. A concerted educative effort through agricultural extension or climate field school should be carried out, especially to correct some misperceptions regarding causes of climate change.


Keywords


Vegetable; Low-land; High-land; Climate variability; Climate change impacts

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p133-146

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