Keragaan Morfo-Fisiologi Phaseolus spp. yang Ditanam Pada Ketinggian Tempat yang Berbeda (Morpho-Physiological Performance Phaseolus spp. on Different Altitudes)

Delfi Trisnawati, nFN Triadiati, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik

Abstract


Permintaan masyarakat di Indonesia terhadap tanaman legumes meningkat setiap tahunnya, namun produksi legumes di Indonesia belum dapat mencukupi kebutuhan konsumen. Pertumbuhan tanaman legume dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan seperti ketinggian tempat, suhu, intensitas cahaya matahari, dan kelembapan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis dan mengevaluasi keragaan morfo-fisiologi Phaseolus spp. yang ditanam pada dua ketinggian tempat yang berbeda. Empat jenis legumes yang digunakan adalah Jackson Wonder Bean (JWB - Phaseolus lunatus), Christmas Bean (CHB - P. lunatus), Cranberry Bean (CRB - P. vulgaris), dan White Kidney Bean (WKB - P. vulgaris). Empat macam kacang tersebut ditanam pada ketinggian tempat 1.100 m dpl. (lokasi I) dan pada ketinggian 250 m dpl. (lokasi II). Peubah fisiologi dipengaruhi oleh lokasi penelitian, sedangkan peubah morfologi dipengaruhi oleh interaksi antara ketinggian tempat dan jenis kacang. Perbedaan kondisi lingkungan memengaruhi habitus JWB (P. vulgaris). CHB (P. lunatus) menghasilkan jumlah polong tertinggi pada ketinggian tempat 1.100 m dpl., yaitu 25,7 polong diikuti dengan BB 100 biji, yaitu 158,3 g. Implikasi penelitian ini adalah pembudidayaan tanaman legumes atau kacang minor pada dua lokasi yang berbeda berdasarkan ketinggian tempat untuk mendapatkan kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai agar pertumbuhan dan produksinya optimal.

Keywords

Phaseolus lunatus; Phaseolus vulgaris; Bintil akar; Konduktansi stomata; Laju fotosintesis

Abstract

The demand of legumes in Indonesia is increasing every year. The growth performance of legumes is influenced by environmental factors such as altitude land, temperature, light intensity, and air humidity. The aims of this study were to analyze and evaluate the morpho-physiological performance of legumes (Phaseolus spp.) grown in two different altitudes. Four genotypes of bean used in this study were Jackson Wonder Bean (JWB - P. lunatus), Christmas Bean (CHB - P. lunatus), Cranberry Bean (CRB - P. vulgaris), and White Kidney Bean (WKB - P. vulgaris). The four species of beans were grown at 1,100 m asl. (location I) and 250 m asl. (location II). The physiological parameters were influenced by location, meanwhile the morphological parameter was affected by the interaction between the altitude and type of beans. The differences on environmental condition in both field affected the habits of WKB (P. vulgaris). The CHB (P. lunatus) bean produced the highest number of pods at altitude of 1,100 m asl followed by wet weight of 100 seeds is 25.7 and 158.3. The implication of this research is the cultivation of beans minor at two different locations based on the altitude to get the appropriate environmental conditions to be optimal growth and production.


Keywords


Phaseolus lunatus; Phaseolus vulgaris; Nodule; Photosynthetic rate; Stomatal conductance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p59-66

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