Analisis Tingkat Preferensi Petani Brebes terhadap Karakterisitik Hasil dan Kualitas Bawang Merah Varietas Lokal Asal Dataran Medium dan Tinggi

rofik Sinung Basuki

Abstract


Varietas lokal bawang merah asal dataran medium dan tinggi potensial ditanam di dataran rendah Brebes
sebagai usaha untuk mengurangi penggunaan varietas impor. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengidentifikasi varietas
lokal asal dataran medium dan tinggi yang adaptif dan disukai petani dibanding varietas impor di sentra produksi di
Kabupaten Brebes. Penelitian di lakukan di Desa Kemukten, Kabupaten Brebes pada bulan Juli-September 2006.
Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian partisipatif yang didukung dengan percobaan lapangan. Percobaan
lapangan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 3 ulangan. Delapan perlakuan yang diteliti adalah 3 varietas
lokal dataran medium (200-700 m dpl.), 2 varietas dataran tinggi (>700 m dpl.), 2 varietas impor, serta 1 varietas lokal
dataran rendah (0-200 m dpl.) sebagai pembanding. Plot percobaan lapangan digunakan untuk mengetahui daya hasil
varietas yang diuji dan sebagai petak observasi bagi 30 petani partisipan dalam menentukan tingkat preferensi dari
varietas yang diuji. Data penelitian partisipatif dikumpulkan dari jawaban tertulis petani partisipan pada kuesioner
yang dibagikan peneliti pada saat petani melakukan observasi pada plot percobaan lapangan. Data petani berupa skor
tingkat preferensi (TP) petani terhadap atribut karakteristik daya hasil, jumlah anakan, bentuk umbi, ukuran umbi,
warna umbi, dan aroma dari 8 varietas yang diteliti dan dianalisis menggunakan metode perceived quality. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 5 varietas lokal dataran medium dan tinggi yang diuji, varietas Menteng Kupa
dan Maja adalah yang paling disukai petani. Walaupun secara agronomis tingkat hasil dan ukuran umbi varietas impor
lebih unggul dibanding varietas Menteng Kupa dan Maja, namun nilai TP total petani terhadap varietas lokal Menteng
Kupa, Maja, dan Bima Curut lebih tinggi 16-21% dibanding TP total petani terhadap varietas impor Tanduyung dan
Ilokos. Hal ini terjadi karena total karakteristik Menteng Kupa dan Maja dalam hal daya hasil, jumlah anakan, bentuk
umbi, ukuran umbi, warna umbi, dan aroma lebih disukai petani dibanding total karakteristik yang dimiliki kedua
varietas impor tersebut. Varietas Menteng Kupa dan Maja merupakan varietas yang sesuai digunakan di Brebes
sebagai alternatif dari penggunaan varietas impor.

ABSTRACT. Basuki, R.S. 2009. Analysis of Farmers Preference in Brebes to the Yield and Quality Characteristics
of Local Variety Shallots from Medium and High Altitude. Local variety shallots from medium and high altitude is
potential to be planted at lowland area of Brebes as an alternatif in reducing the use of imported varieties. The objective
of this research was to identify local variety of shallots from medium and high altitude which adaptable and more
preferred by farmers in Brebes than that of imported variety. Research was conducted in Kemukten Village, Brebes
District from July to September 2006. The approach of research was farmer participatory research supported by field
trial plot. The field trial design used was RCBD, with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were 8 varieties
of shallots consist of 3 local varieties of shallots from medium altitude (200-700 m asl.), 2 local varieties from high
altitude (>700 m asl.), 2 imported varieties, and 1 local variety from lowland (0-200 m asl.) as control. The field trial
plot was used to measure the adaptability of the varieties tested and as an observation plot for 30 farmers partisipants.
Data from farmer participatory research were collected from farmer’s written answers on the questionnaire distributed
by researchers. Farmer’s data were the level of preference (LP) of farmers to the characteristics of yield, number of
sprouts, bulb shape, bulb size, bulb color, and aroma of 8 shallots varieties tested in the field trial. The data was analyzed
using perceived quality methods. The results showed that local varieties from medium altitude namely Menteng Kupa
and Maja were the most preferred by farmers. Agronomically, the yield of imported varieties were higher, and the bulb
were bigger than that of Menteng Kupa and Maja, despite of that the farmer’s level of preference on Menteng Kupa
and Maja were 16-21% higher than that of the imported varieties of Tanduyung and Ilokos. The reason was that the
total characteristics of Menteng Kupa and Maja in terms of yield, number of shoots, bulb shape, bulb size, bulb color,
and aroma was preferred by farmers more than that of the total characteristics of imported varieties. Local varieties
Menteng Kupa and Maja were suitable varieties to be used in Brebes as an alternative of imported varieties.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Local variety; Imported variety; Farmer preference; Participatory research; Perceived quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n4.2009.p%25p

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