Pengujian Kisaran Inang Nematoda Bentuk Ginjal (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford dan Oliveira)

Budi Marwoto

Abstract


Rotylenchulus reniformis merupakan salah satu nematoda semiendoparasit penting yang menyerang
berbagai jenis tanaman hortikultura di Indonesia. Nematoda ini dapat ditemukan di dataran rendah maupun dataran
tinggi di Indonesia. Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengendalikan R. reniformis ialah melalui penerapan rotasi
tanaman dan sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk memusnahkan tanaman inang alternatif. Untuk itu, diperlukan pengujian
status inang berbagai jenis tanaman dan spesies gulma terhadap R. reniformis. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April
2002 sampai Januari 2003 di Rumah Kaca dan Laboratorium Nematologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Segunung,
Kecamatan Pacet, Kabupaten Cianjur (1.100 m dpl.). Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 5
ulangan. Sebanyak 84 jenis tanaman sayuran, tanaman hias, dan berbagai spesies gulma digunakan sebagai perlakuan.
Setiap tanaman diinokulasi dengan 1.000 ekor nematoda yang merupakan campuran larva, nematoda jantan, dan betina
pradewasa. Status inang ditentukan dengan kriteria faktor reproduksi R. reniformis lebih dari 1 = tanaman inang R.
reniformis dan faktor reproduksi kurang dari 1 = bukan tanaman inang. Faktor reproduksi merupakan perbandingan
antara populasi akhir dan populasi awal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 41 jenis tanaman sayuran yang
diuji, 24 di antaranya merupakan tanaman inang R. reniformis. Cabai, wortel, dan bawang-bawangan bukan inang
R. reniformis. Tujuh spesies gulma berdaun lebar dapat digolongkan sebagai inang R. reniformis. Semua gulma
monokotil yang diuji bukan inang R. reniformis. Populasi R. reniformis tidak dapat berkembang pada hibrida Tagetes
patula dan T. erecta, Crotalaria usaramoensis, dan Ricinus communis

ABSTRACT. Marwoto, B. 2009. Study of Host Range of Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford
and Oliveira ). Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important semiendoparasitic nematode attacking different
species of horticultural crops and weeds in Indonesia. The nematode can be found in the lowland and highland areas
in Indonesia. One of the most reliable control measures of the nematode in the field is by applying crop rotation and
eradicating alternative hosts. Before applying those control measures, a research on the host status of different crops
and weed species to the nematode is necessarily to be done. This study was conducted on April 2002 to January
2003 at the Greenhouse and Nematology Laboratory of The Research Institute for Ornamental Crops, Cianjur, West
Java (1,100 asl.). A completely randomized design with 5 replications was used in this study. A total of 84 species
and varieties of vegetables, ornamental crops, and weeds were used as treatments. Every variety of the crops and the
weeds were inoculated with 1,000 nematode population, comprised of larvae, male, and pre-adult female. Host status
was determined by the following criteria reproductive factor: >1=host plant and reproductive factor; and <1=non-host
plant; where reproductive factor was ratio between initial population and final population. The results showed that of
the 41 species and varieties of vegetable crops tested, 24 species were determined as non-host of R. reniformis. Among
them were chili pepper, carrot, shallots, and garlic. Seven weed species were categorized as host of R. reniformis.
Monocot weeds were mostly proven as non-host of R. reniformis. Population of R. reniformis could not grow on
Tagetes patula and T. erecta hibryds, Crotalaria usaramoensis, and Ricinus communis


Keywords


Rotylenchulus reniformis; Host status; Reproductive factor; Vegetable; Ornamental plants; Weeds

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n4.2009.p%25p

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