Analisis Tingkat Preferensi Petani terhadap Karakterisitik Hasil dan Kualitas Bawang Merah Varietas Lokal dan Impor

Rofik Sinung Basuki

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Varietas lokal bawang merah yang kompetitif terhadap varietas impor perlu diketahui untuk mengurangi
penggunaan varietas impor. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengidentifikasi varietas lokal yang lebih disukai petani
dibanding varietas impor di sentra produksi di Kabupaten Brebes. Penelitian dilakukan di 2 desa di Kabupaten Brebes
pada bulan Juli-Oktober 2005. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian partisipatif yang didukung dengan
percobaan lapangan. Percobaan lapangan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan yang
diteliti adalah 10 varietas lokal dan 2 varietas impor. Plot percobaan lapangan digunakan sebagai petak observasi bagi
petani partisipan, 28 orang di Desa Kemukten dan 32 orang di Desa Slatri. Data penelitian partisipatif dikumpulkan
dari jawaban tertulis petani partisipan pada kuesioner yang dibagikan peneliti pada saat petani melakukan observasi
pada plot percobaan lapangan. Data petani berupa skor tingkat preferensi (TP) petani terhadap atribut karakteristik
daya hasil, jumlah anakan, bentuk umbi, ukuran umbi, warna umbi, dan aroma dari 12 varietas yang diteliti dianalisis
menggunakan metode perceived quality. Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa dari 10 varietas lokal yang diuji, varietas
lokal Bima Curut adalah yang paling disukai petani. Walaupun secara agronomis tingkat hasil dan ukuran umbi hasil,
varietas impor lebih unggul dibanding varietas lokal Bima Curut, namun TP petani terhadap varietas lokal Bima Curut
lebih tinggi 10-23% dibanding TP petani terhadap varietas impor Tanduyung dan Ilokos. Hal ini terjadi karena total
karakteristik Bima Curut dalam hal daya hasil, jumlah anakan, bentuk umbi, ukuran umbi, warna umbi, dan aroma
lebih disukai petani dibanding total karakteristik yang dimiliki kedua varietas impor tersebut. Diperlukan dukungan
perakitan komponen teknologi pemupukan, budidaya, serta pengendalian hama dan penyakit agar keunggulan varietas
Bima Curut dapat lebih dioptimalkan.

ABSTRACT. Basuki, R.S. 2009. Analysis of Farmer’s Preference on Yield and Quality Characteristic of Local
and Imported Shallots Variety. Local variety of shallots that had competitiveness to imported variety needed to
be identified in order to reduce the use of imported seed variety. The objective of this research was to identify local
variety more preferred by farmers than that of imported variety. Research was conducted in Brebes District from
July to October 2005. The approach of research was farmer participatory research supported by field trial plot. The
field trial design used was RCBD, with 10 local varieties and 2 imported varieties as treatments and 3 replications.
The field trial plot was used as an observation plot for farmers participants, 28 farmers in Kemukten Village and 32
farmers in Slatri Village. The data from farmer participatory research were collected from farmer’s written answers on
the questionnaire distributed by researchers. Farmers’ data were the level of farmer’s preference to the characteristics
of yield, number of sprouts, bulb shape, bulb size, bulb color, and flavor of 12 shallot varieties tested in the field
trial. The data were analyzed using perceived quality methods. The results showed that among local varieties, Bima
Curut variety was the most preferred by farmers. Agronomically, the yield of imported varieties were higher and the
bulb were bigger than that of Bima Curut. However, the level of farmers preference on Bima Curut were 10 to 23
% higher than that of the imported varieties of Tanduyung and Ilokos. The reason was that the total characteristics
of Bima Curut in terms of yield, number of sprouts, bulb shape, bulb size, bulb color, and flavor were preferred by
farmers more than that of the total characteristics of imported varieties. Nonetheless, technological components of
fertilization, cultivation, disease and pest control still need improvements to increase the competitiveness of Bima
Curut variety.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Local variety; Imported variety; Farmer preference; Participatory research; Perceived quality.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n2.2009.p%25p

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