Studi Pendasaran Sistem Usahatani Tanaman-Ternak pada Ekosistem Dataran Tinggi di Jawa Barat

Witono Adiyoga, R Suherman

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Kegiatan penelitian ini merupakan studi pendasaran yang dilaksanakan di daerah dataran tinggi Jawa Barat (Lembang: Desa Cibodas dan Suntenjaya, Pangalengan: Desa Pulosari dan Margamulya, dan Ciwidey: Desa Lebakmuncang dan Panundaan) pada bulan Mei-Oktober 2003. Responden di setiap lokasi ditentukan berdasarkan kriteria bahwa responden bersangkutan melakukan usahatani tanaman-ternak. Rincian jumlah responden di masing-masing lokasi adalah sebagai berikut. Lembang 40 orang, Pangalengan 45 orang, dan Ciwidey 44 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya beberapa komoditas sayuran yang sama diusahakan hampir di semua lokasi, misalnya kubis, tomat, dan kentang. Jika pada waktu tertentu terjadi kelebihan pasokan untuk komoditas tersebut akibat tidak adanya koordinasi pengaturan produksi, maka harga akan turun secara drastis. Informasi pola tanam setahun menunjukkan dominasi pemilihan sistem pertanaman monokultur. Kisaran produktivitas minimal dan maksimal yang cukup lebar secara tidak langsung tidak saja memberikan gambaran adanya keragaman intensitas penggunaan input, tetapi juga inefisiensi penggunaan input antarusahatani. Fluktuasi harga dan insiden hama penyakit dipersepsi sebagai 2 kendala terpenting usahatani sayuran. Jenis ternak yang dominan diusahakan adalah sapi perah. Sebagian responden juga mengusahakan ternak yang dikategorikan sebagai komoditas ternak sekunder, misalnya domba dan kelinci. Estimasi produktivitas sapi perah di ketiga sentra menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas sapi perah di Pangalengan sedikit lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan produktivitas sapi perah di Lembang dan Ciwidey. Penghitungan kelayakan finansial memberikan gambaran bahwa pengusahaan 3 ekor sapi perah usia pedet dan 2 ekor sapi perah usia danten dikategorikan layak secara finansial. Peternak responden menganggap kualitas pakan, insiden penyakit, dan ketersediaan modal merupakan 3 kendala utama usaha ternak. Indikator kontribusi memberikan gambaran bahwa pengusahaan ternak memberikan kontribusi yang lebih dominan terhadap pendapatan rumah tangga tani di Lembang dan Ciwidey. Sementara itu, pengusahaan sayuran memberikan kontribusi yang lebih dominan terhadap pendapatan rumah tangga tani di Pangalengan. Petani mengusulkan perbaikan metode pengendalian hama penyakit, cara dan dosis pemupukan, serta pemilihan/penggunaan benih berkualitas untuk semua komoditas sayuran utama. Petani menghendaki adanya pemutakhiran teknologi yang dapat meningkatkan produktivitas usahatani secara nyata. Untuk sapi perah, perbaikan komponen teknologi yang diusulkan petani adalah komponen teknologi peningkatan produksi dan kualitas susu, pembuatan pakan, sanitasi kandang, dan pengendalian penyakit.

ABSTRACT. Adiyoga, W. and R. Suherman. 2008. A Baseline Study of Crop-livestock System in West Java Highland Ecosystem. A baseline study was carried out in West Java highland areas (Lembang: Cibodas and Suntenjaya Village, Pangalengan: Pulosari and Margamulya Village, and Ciwidey: Lebakmuncang and Panundaan Village) from May to October 2003. Respondents were those who grew vegetables and raised livestock simultaneously. Number of respondents selected were as follow: Lembang 40 respondents, Pangalengan 45 respondents, and Ciwidey 44 respondents. The results showed that some major vegetables, such as cabbage, potato, and tomato were grown in all production centers. Without any production regulation, the probability of excess supply that may decrease the price drastically was quite high. Yearly cropping pattern showed the domination of monocropping system. Wide gap between minimum and maximum yield provide an indirect indication that there was not only caused by wide variation in input-use intensity, but also inefficiency in input allocation among vegetable farms. Price fluctuation and pest and disease incidence were the most 2 important constraints in vegetable farming. Livestock dominantly raised in highland areas were dairy cow. Some respondents also raised goats and rabbits as secondary livestock. Productivity of dairy cows in Pangalengan was slightly higher than that in Lembang and Ciwidey. Feasibility analysis indicated that raising 3 cows (less than 18 months old) and 2 cows (more than 18 months old) was financially viable. Respondents perceived that feed quality, disease incidence and capital availability were the most 3 important constrains in dairy cows farming. Some indicators suggest that dairy cows farming contributed more dominantly to the household income in Lembang and Ciwidey. Meanwhile, the vegetable farming provided a more dominant contribution to the household income in Pangalengan. Farmers proposed the need for some improvements in pest and disease control, fertilization and selection or use of good quality seeds for all important vegetables. Implicitly, farmers asked for the most updated technology to increase their farm productivity significantly. For dairy cows, some improvements needed were techniques to increase milk production and quality, to prepare feeds, to improve cage sanitation, and to control disease.


Keywords


Usahatani tanaman-ternak; Sayuran; Sapi perah; Dataran tinggi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v18n1.2008.p%25p

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