Pendekatan Fenetik Taksonomi dalam Identifikasi Kekerabatan Spesies Anthurium

C Martasari, Agus Sugiyatno, H M Yusuf, D L Rahayu

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Identifikasi kekerabatan Anthurium koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika
dilakukan menggunakan pendekatan fenetik. Hasil identifikasi kekerabatan ini akan sangat bermanfaat dalam kegiatan
pemuliaan Anthurium untuk menghasilkan varietas baru. Sumber data yang digunakan adalah parameter morfologi,
organ vegetatif, organ reproduksi, dan polen. Penentuan hubungan kekerabatan Anthurium dilakukan mengikuti
petunjuk Sokal dan Michener (1958). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Pemuliaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman
Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Tlekung Batu dan Laboratorium Biologi Universitas Negeri Malang dari bulan Juni
2005 hingga Januari 2006. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh ciri-ciri umum dan khusus dari masing-masing spesies
Anthurium yang selanjutnya ciri-ciri tersebut dianalisis dan disusun dalam bentuk matriks jumlah pasangan satuan
taxonomi operasional (STO). Fenogram dibentuk dari perhitungan koefisien asosiasi matriks. Berdasarkan fenogram
diperoleh 5 kelompok kekerabatan berturut-turut dari yang terdekat sampai yang terjauh. Spesies yang tergabung
dalam kelompok pertama (A. ferriense dan A.macrolobim) dan kedua (A. amnicola Dressler. dan A. andraeanum
Linden) termasuk berkerabat dekat di mana indeks kesamaannya masing-masing 65 dan 57,1%. Kelompok 3 (A.
halmoreii Croat. dan A. jenmanii Engl.), dan kelompok 4 (A. crystallinum Linden & Andre dan A. andicola Liebm.)
merupakan pasangan-pasangan yang berkerabat jauh, yaitu dengan indeks kesamaan 53,7 dan 47,8%. Kelompok
kelima (A. superbum Madison dan A. correa Croat) merupakan pasangan yang berkerabat paling jauh dengan indeks
kesamaan 32,8%. Indeks kesamaan antara kelompok 1 dan kelompok 2 sebesar 29%, kelompok 3 dan kelompok 4
sebesar 26%, dan indeks kesamaan kelompok 5 terhadap keempat lainnya adalah sebesar 25,3%.

ABSTRACT. Martasari, C., A. Sugiyatno, H.M.Yusuf, and D. L. Rahayu. 2009. The Phenetic Taxonomy
Approach to Identify Relationship of Anthurium Species. Identification of relationship of Anthurium species,
collection from Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute (ICISFRI) was conducted using phenetic
taxonomy approach method. The study was very useful to developed new superior variety of Anthurium. The data used
in the study were morphological, vegetative organ, reproductive organ, and pollen parameters. Anthurium relationship
was defined based on Sokal and Michener method (1958). The research was carried out at both Indonesian Citrus
and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICISFRI) Breeding Laboratory and the Biology Laboratory, Malang State
University from June 2005 to January 2006. The general and specific descriptors obtained from the experiment were
analyzed and arranged in a matrices of STO pair number. Phenogram was created from the calculation of matrices
coefficient association. According to the phenogram it was shown that 5 related groups of Anthurium species laid from
near to far distance based on their relationship. The first group consist of A. ferrience and A. macrolobin, it had a near
distance with group 2 (A. amnicola Dressler. and A. andraeanum Linden) with their similarity index 65 and 57.1%
respectively. Group 3 (A. halmoreii Croat and A. jenmanii Engl.), and group 4 (A. crystallinum Linden & Andre and
A. andicola Liebm.) had a far distance with similarity index 53.7 and 47.8%. The last group (A. superboom Madison
and A. correa Croat.) was the furthest distance with similarity index 32.8%. The similarity index between first and
second group, third and fourth group, and the fifth group to others was 29, 26, and 25.3%, respectively.


Keywords


Anthurium sp.; Relationship; Phenetic; Morphology; Vegetative organ; Reproductive organ; Pollen

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n2.2009.p%25p

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