Pengaruh Varietas dan Sistem Tanam Cabai Merah terhadap Penekanan Populasi Hama Kutu Kebul

W Setiawati, B K Udiarto, T A Soetiarso

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Kutu kebul, Bemisia tabaci merupakan hama penting pada tanaman cabai merah di Indonesia. Penggunaan varietas tahan dan sistem tanam merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi serangan B. tabaci. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh berbagai varietas cabai merah dan sistem tanam terhadap serangan B. tabaci pada tanaman cabai merah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran dari bulan Juli 2004-Maret 2005. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah petak terpisah dengan 4 ulangan. Sebagai plot utama adalah varietas cabai merah (Taro, TM-99, Hot Beauty, Hot Chili, Keriting Lembang, dan Tanjung-2). Sebagai anak petak adalah sistem tanam (monokutur, tumpangsari cabai dan kubis, dan tumpangsari cabai dan tomat). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas cabai merah yang paling disukai oleh B. tabaci adalah varietas Taro dan yang kurang disukai adalah varietas Hot Chili. Tumpangsari antara cabai merah dengan kubis dan tumpangsari antara cabai merah dengan tomat ternyata dapat menekan populasi B. tabaci, masing-masing sebesar 60,72 dan 25,24% dibandingkan dengan sistem tanam monokultur. Pada varietas tanaman yang disukai (Taro) kerusakan tanaman yang diakibatkan oleh B. tabaci dapat mencapai 29,51% pada sistem tumpangsari, sedangkan pada sistem tanam monokultur dapat mencapai 30,18%. Hasil panen monokultur lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tumpangsari. Hasil panen tertinggi didapat oleh varietas Hot Chili (16,86 t/ha) dan yang terendah adalah Keriting Lembang (6,35 t/ha). Varietas Hot Chili mempunyai produksi tertinggi dibandingkan dengan varietas lainnya dan merupakan varietas terbaik bila ditumpangsarikan dengan kubis ataupun tomat dan kurang disukai oleh B. tabaci.

ABSTRACT. Setiawati, W., B.K. Udiarto, and T.A. Soetiarso. 2008 Effect of Varieties and Cropping System Against the Tobacco Whitefly on Hot Pepper. The ect of Varieties and Cropping System Against the Tobacco Whitefly on Hot Pepper. The tobacco whitefly, B. tabaci is an important insect affecting hot pepper production in Indonesia. The use of resistant varieties and cropping system are alternative to minimize this pest. The studies was designed to find out the difference in performance among 6 selected hot pepper varieties against B. tabaci and to assess the effect of cropping system against B. tabaci population. This research purposes were to examine fundamental component of any IPM program, the interaction between the crop cultivar, the pest, and the control strategies. The study was conducted at the field of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute from July 2004 to March 2005. Split plot design with 4 replications was used in this experiment. Varieties was used as a main plot, while cropping system was used as a subplot. The results showed that Taro variety was the most preferred by B. tabaci, while Hot Chili was the least preferred. Multiple cropping between hot pepper-cabbage, and hot pepper-tomatoes can reduced population of B. tabaci on hot pepper at rate of 60.72 and 25,24% respectively compare to monoculture. Damage caused by B. tabaci was the highest on Taro variety, i.e. 29.51% on multiple cropping and 30.18% on monoculture. The yield was higher in monoculture than multiple cropping. The highest yield was obtained from Hot Chili (16. 86 t/ha) while Keriting Lembang gave the lowest yield (6.35 t/ha). The use of tolerant varieties and adoption of proper cultural practices can reduce population of B. tabaci. Hot Chili variety also gave the highest yield in the multiple cropping, either with tomato or cabbge.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Brassica oleraceae; Solanum esculentum; Sistem tanam; Bemisia tabaci; Populasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v18n1.2008.p%25p

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