Hubungan Dinamika Populasi Tungau Panonychus citri dengan Kandungan Senyawa Atsiri pada Buah Jeruk Manis dan Jeruk Besar

Mizu Istianto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Panonychus citri adalah salah satu hama jeruk yang secara ekonomis penting di Indonesia. Salah satu
kunci sukses untuk mengendalikan populasi P. citri adalah memahami interaksi hama ini dengan inangnya. Senyawa
limonen dan linalool telah diketahui mempengaruhi biologi dan kemampuan reproduksi tungau P. citri pada kondisi
laboratorium. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kandungan senyawa atsiri kulit jeruk terhadap
dinamika populasi P. citri pada kulit buah jeruk di lapangan. Penelitian dilakukan pada pertanaman jeruk besar
Nambangan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, dan pertanaman jeruk manis Pacitan di Kusuma
Agrowisata, Batu, Malang. Waktu penelitian mulai April sampai September 2004. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap
dinamika populasi P. citri dan kandungan senyawa atsiri dominan pada kulit buah jeruk besar dan jeruk manis. Data
yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan senyawa limonen dan
linalool mempunyai pengaruh kuat terhadap dinamika populasi P. citri. Pada tanaman jeruk manis, pengaruh senyawa
limonen dan linalool memberikan nilai adjusted r square yang tinggi, yaitu 0,943 dengan persamaan regresi Y=
218,829 - 2,412 X1+ 5,987 X2 (X1=limonen, X2=linalool). Senyawa limonen memberikan efek negatif, sedangkan
linalool memberikan efek positif terhadap P. citri. Pada tanaman jeruk besar, populasi P. citri rendah dan konstan
dengan kandungan limonen tinggi dan kandungan linalool rendah sehingga efek negatif limonen terhadap P. citri
lebih dominan. Hasil penelitian ini dapat memberikan alternatif pengembangan teknologi pengendalian tungau P.
citri pada tanaman jeruk melalui manipulasi kandungan metabolit sekunder dalam tanaman

ABSTRACT. Istianto, M. 2009. Relationship Between Population Dynamic of Panonychus citri and Volatile
Compounds on Sweet Orange and Pummelo Fruit. Panonychus citri is one of the important citrus pests in Indonesia.
One of the key success for controlling the population of this pest is understanding the relationship between this mite
and its host. Previous study showed that limonene and linalool influenced the biology and reproductive capacity of P.
citri. The objectives of this research were to understand the relationship between population dynamic of P. citri and
fluctuation content of dominant volatile compounds on sweet orange and pummelo. The research was conducted on
pummelo orchard in Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, and sweet orange orchard in Kusuma
Agrowisata Batu Malang from April to September 2004. Observation was carried out to find out the dynamic of P.
citri population and the content of dominant volatile compounds of sweet orange and pummelo. The data obtained
were analyzed with multiple regression. The results showed that limonene and linalool have highly influence on
population dynamic of P. citri. On sweet orange, the effect of limonene and linalool indicated high value at adjusted
r square with value of 0.943 with regression equation Y= 218,829 - 2,412 X1+ 5,987 X2 (X1=limonene, X2= linalool).
Limonene showed negative effect while linalool showed positive effect to P. citri population. Population of P. citri
was lower and steady on pummelo with higher content of limonene and lower content of linalool, so that negative
effects of limonene to P. citri were more dominant. These results give an alternative technologies to control P. citri
population by manipulating secondary metabolite content inside the plant.


Keywords


Citrus sinensis; Citrus maxima; Panonychus citri; Population dynamic; Volatile compounds

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n1.2009.p%25p

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