Persepsi dan Preferensi Konsumen terhadap Atribut Produk Beberapa Jenis Sayuran Minor

Thomas Agus Soetiarso

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian bertujuan mengidentifikasi persepsi konsumen terhadap atribut produk sayuran minor sesuai
dengan preferensinya. Penelitian survai konsumen dilaksanakan di Kotamadya Bandung, Jawa Barat pada bulan
Juni-Agustus 2006. Pemilihan lokasi dilakukan secara sengaja, sedangkan pemilihan responden ibu rumah tangga
sebanyak 49 orang dilakukan secara acak. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara dengan kuesioner
terstruktur. Pada penelitian ini komoditas sayuran minor (under-utilized/indigenous) yang dipilih adalah paria, selada
air, oyong, leunca, dan kemangi. Preferensi konsumen terhadap atribut kualitas sayuran minor dianalisis dengan teknik
peringkat (ranking) dan diuji dengan Chi-square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sayuran kemangi dan oyong
lebih disukai konsumen daripada paria, leunca, dan selada air. Konsumen relatif jarang memanfaatkan kelima jenis
sayuran minor tersebut, yaitu satu kali sebulan atau lebih. Dua kendala utama dalan konsumsi sayuran minor adalah
terbatasnya variasi menu masakan untuk selada air, oyong, dan kemangi, dan rasa yang kurang enak untuk paria dan
leunca. Secara umum konsumen menempatkan atribut kemudahan memperoleh di pasar pada urutan pertama dalam
mengonsumsi kelima jenis sayuran minor tersebut, dan berturut-turut diikuti oleh rasa, kemultigunaan (sebagai obat),
gizi, daya simpan, dan harga. Sementara itu, preferensi konsumen terhadap atribut kualitas kelima jenis sayuran minor
sesuai urutan pertimbangannya dalam memilih atau membeli adalah: (1) paria: panjang sedang (20 cm), diameter
buah sedang (5 cm), permukaan buah bergerigi sedikit-banyak, bentuk buah lurus, kekerasan buah sedang, warna
daging putih kehijauan, daging tebal, rasa agak pahit, dan jumlah biji sedikit, (2) selada air: warna daun hijau muda,
ukuran tangkai sedang, jumlah daun/tangkai sedang-banyak, kekerasan daun renyah, dan rasa agak manis, (3) oyong:
warna kulit hijau muda, panjang sedang (30 cm), diameter sedang (5 cm), kekerasan buah sedang, bentuk buah lurus,
warna daging putih, serta jumlah biji sedikit, (4) leunca: warna buah hijau muda, ukuran buah sedang, kekerasan buah
renyah, jumlah buah/tangkai banyak, dan rasa manis, (5) kemangi: warna daun hijau muda-tua, ukuran daun sedang
(diameter 3,5 cm), jumlah daun/tangkai sedang-banyak, bau/aroma sedang-menyengat, tidak ada bunga, dan jumlah
cabang/tangkai banyak. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar untuk memperbaiki atribut sayuran minor
sesuai dengan preferensi konsumen serta upaya untuk meningkatkan potensi ekonomis komoditas tersebut.

ABSTRACT. Soetiarso, T. A. 2010. Consumer’s Perception and Preference on Product Attributes of Some
Under-utilized (Minor) Vegetables. The study was aimed to identify consumer’s perception on some under-utilized
(minor) vegetables product attributes that reflected their preferences. A consumer survey was carried out in Bandung,
West Java from June to August 2006. Survey location were purposively selected, while 49 household mothers were
randomly chosen. Data were collected through interviews by using a structured questionnaire. Minor vegetables
included in this study were bitter gourd, water cress, ridged gourd, night shade, and basil. Consumer preferences
on product attributes of minor vegetables were analyzed by using a ranking technique and tested with Chi-square.
Results indicated that basil and ridged gourd were more preferred by consumers than bitter gourd, night shade,
and water cress. Those five minor vegetables were rarely consumed once a month or more by consumers. Two
main constraints of the low consumption as perceived by consumers were limited menu variation for water cress,
ridged gourd, and basil and taste was not good for bitter gourd and night shade. In general, consumers considered
the easiness to obtain the minor vegetables in the market as the most important product attribute and subsequently
followed by taste, multi-usage (for medicine), nutrition, storage life, and price. Meanwhile, consumer preferences on
product attributes for each minor vegetables were as follow: (1) bitter gourd: medium length (20 cm), medium fruit
diameter (5 cm), less to much serrated of fruit surfaces, straight fruit shape, medium fruit hardness, greenish-white
flesh color, thick flesh, less bitter, and less number of seeds, (2) water cress: light green leaf color, medium size of
branch, medium to much number of leaves/branches, crispy leaves, and slightly sweet, (3) ridged gourd: light green
skin color, medium length (30 cm), medium diameter (5 cm), medium fruit hardness, straight fruit shape, white flesh
color and less number of seeds, (4) night shade: light green fruit color, medium fruit size, crisp fruit hardness, much
number of fruits/branches and sweet taste, (5) basil: light to dark green leaves, medium leaf size (diameter 3.5 cm),
medium to much number of leaves, medium to strong aroma, no flower, and much number of branches. Results
of this consumer survey may be used as a preference-based feedback for improving the product attibutes of minor
vegetables to increase their economic potentials.


Keywords


Minor (under-utilized) vegetables; Product attribute; Perception; Preference

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n3.2010.p%25p

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