Studi Fenofisiologi Pembungaan Salak Gula Pasir sebagai Upaya Mengatasi Kegagalan Fruit-Set

I Nengah Rai, CGA Semarajaya, I Wayan Wiraatmaja

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Salak Gula Pasir secara alamiah berbunga setiap 3 bulan sekali atau empat kali setahun, tetapi dari
empat kali musim pembungaan, hanya satu sampai dua musim pembungaan saja yang menghasilkan buah. Kegagalan
fruit-set menyebabkan panen buah salak Gula Pasir bersifat musiman. Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari fenofisiologi
pembungaan salak Gula Pasir untuk mengatasi kegagalan fruit-set dan memproduksi buah di luar musim. Penelitian
menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan satu faktor perlakuan dan 20 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji ialah musim
pembungaan terdiri atas tiga taraf, yaitu musim pembungaan sela I (April), musim pembungaan gadu (Juli), dan musim
pembungaan sela II (Oktober). Penelitian dilakukan di kebun salak Gula Pasir milik petani di Desa Sibetan, Kecamatan
Bebandem, Kabupaten Karangasem, mulai bulan Maret sampai November 2009. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap
pertumbuhan bunga dan buah, iklim mikro, kandungan N, P, dan K jaringan daun, dan kandungan N, P, dan K tanah.
Data dianalisis dengan sidik ragam sesuai dengan rancangan yang digunakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
tanaman salak Gula Pasir yang diteliti dapat berbunga dengan baik pada sela I, gadu, dan sela II, tetapi persentase
fruit-set pada gadu sangat rendah (20,53%) atau persentase bunga gugur sangat tinggi (79,47%). Tingginya persentase
bunga gugur pada gadu berhubungan dengan kondisi iklim yang kurang mendukung, karena rendahnya intensitas
curah hujan dan jumlah hari hujan, sehingga tanaman kekurangan air, yang ditunjukkan oleh rendahnya kandungan
air relatif pada daun. Pembuahan salak Gula Pasir di luar musim dapat dilakukan dengan mengurangi persentase
buah gugur melalui pemberian air irigasi sebagai pengganti rendahnya curah hujan dan hari hujan.

ABSTRACT. Rai, I. N., C.G.A. Semarajaya, and I. W. Wiraatmaja. 2010. A Study on the Flowering
Phenophysiology of Gula Pasir Snake Fruit to Prevent Failure of Fruit-set. Flowering of Gula Pasir snake fruit
naturally occures once every 3 months or four times a year, but only one to two of flowering seasons succeeds to
produce fruit. Fruit-set failure causes the fruit harvest seasonally occurs. This research was aimed to study Flowering
phenophysiology of Gula Pasir snake fruit to prevent failure fruit-set and to produce off-season fruit. A randomized
complete design with one treatment factor and 20 replications was used in the research. The treatment was flowering
season consisted of three levels i.e. sela I (April), gadu (July), and sela II (October). The research was conducted
at a farmer’s snake fruit orchard in Sibetan Village, Bebandem Subdistrict, Karangasem Regency, from March to
November 2009. Variables observed were flower and fruit growth, microclimate, N, P, and K leaf tissue content,
and N, P, and K soil content. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (anova). The results showed that the
ability of the crop to flowering was the same between season of sela I, gadu, and sela II. However, the percentage
of fruit-set at gadu was very low (20.53%) or flower drop was very high (79.47%). Due to unfavorable climatice
condition that was very low total rain day and rainfall. Therefore, the crop did not obtain sufficient water, that was
indicated by the lowest relative water content on leaf. Off-season fruit production of Gula Pasir snake fruit of could
be established by decreasing the percentage of flower drop by utilyzing irrigation as the substitution of low total
rain day and rainfall.


Keywords


Gula Pasir snake fruit; Salacca edulis; Phenophysiology; Fruit-set; Off-season; Flower dropped

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n3.2010.p%25p

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