Analisis Finansial Penggunaan Benih Kentang G4 Bersertifikat dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Usahatani Petani Kentang

H K Ridwan, Nurmalinda Nurmalinda, Sabari Sabari, Yusdar Hilman

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Permasalahan utama usahatani kentang ialah produktivitas rerata yang masih rendah, yaitu sekitar
16,94 t/ha. Penggunaan benih G4 bersertifikat diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produksi dan pendapatan para petani
kentang. Penelitian mengenai analisis finansial penggunaan benih G4 bersertifikat dalam meningkatkan pendapatan
usahatani kentang di Indonesia telah dilakukan di Kecamatan Pangalengan, Bandung, Jawa Barat dan Kecamatan
Batur, Banjarnegara, Jawa Tengah, dari bulan Januari-Desember 2008. Tujuan penelitian ialah menganalisis secara
finansial penggunaan benih kentang G4 bersertifikat dalam hal biaya, produksi, penerimaan, dan keuntungan bersih
usahatani dibanding dengan penggunaan benih kentang tidak bersertifikat. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan metode
survei. Data primer diperoleh melalui wawancara berstruktur dengan petani, sedangkan data sekunder dikumpulkan dari
instansi terkait. Analisis data kualitatif dilakukan secara deskriptif, sedangkan analisis biaya dan pendapatan dilakukan
dengan metode analisis finansial statik serta uji t untuk membandingkan dua perlakuan. Hasil analisis biaya usahatani
kentang menunjukkan bahwa di Pangalengan rerata biaya produksi kentang dengan benih G4 bersertifikat mencapai
Rp37.042.970,00, dan benih tidak bersertifikat Rp29.305.108,00 per ha/musim. Di Batur, rerata biaya produksi
kentang dengan benih G4 bersertifikat mencapai Rp23.718.196,00 dan benih tidak bersertifikat Rp22.589.475,00 per
ha/musim. Di Pangalengan, rerata produksi kentang yang dihasilkan dengan benih G4 bersertifikat mencapai 26.364
kg, dan benih tidak bersertifikat mencapai 22.001 kg per ha/musim. Di Batur, rerata produksi kentang dengan benih
G4 bersertifikat dan benih tidak bersertifikat masing-masing mencapai 16.976 kg dan 14.031 kg per ha/musim. Hasil
analisis masukan dan keluaran menunjukkan bahwa, di Pangalengan usahatani kentang yang menggunakan benih
G4 bersertifikat dan benih tidak bersertifikat mendapatkan penerimaan serta keuntungan bersih masing-masing
Rp70.417.354,00 dan Rp53.529.785,00 serta Rp33.374.384,00 dan Rp24.224.677,00 per ha/musim, sedangkan di Batur
mendapatkan penerimaan Rp67.130.010,00 dan Rp51.338.645,00 serta keuntungan bersih sebesar Rp43.411.814,00
dan Rp28.749.170,00 per ha/musim. Hasil perhitungan uji t menunjukkan bahwa, di Pangalengan penggunaan benih
kentang G4 bersertifikat memperlihatkan adanya perbedaan nyata dalam biaya dan penerimaan, sedangkan di Batur,
memperlihatkan adanya perbedaan nyata dalam penerimaan dan keuntungan bersih usahatani dibanding dengan yang
menggunakan benih tidak bersertifikat.

ABSTRACT. Ridwan, H.K., Nurmalinda, Sabari, and Y. Hilman. 2010. Financial Analysis of Potato Farming
System Using G4 Certified Seed to Improve Potato Farmer’s Income. The main problem on potato farming
system was low productivity (16.94 t/ha). The use of certified seeds (generation four/G4) was expected to improve
productivity and potato farmers income. The research was conducted at Pangalengan District, Bandung, West Java
Province and Batur District, Banjarnegara, Central Java, from January to December 2008. The objectives of this
research was to analyze financially the used of certified seed (G4) in term of production cost, productivity, revenue,
and profit of potato farming in comparation with the used of uncertified seed. The study was conducted by using
survey method. Primary data were obtained through interviewing farmers and secondary data were collected from
the related institutions. Qualitative data were analyzed descriptively, while the cost and income analysis were
done by static method, and t test. The results indicated that the production cost in Pangalengan reached as much as
Rp37,042,970.00/ha (using certified seeds) and Rp29,305,108.00/ha (using uncertified seeds). Similar result was
obtained in Batur, the production cost was Rp23,718,196.00/ha (using certified seeds) and Rp22,589,475.00/ha (using
uncertified seeds). In Pangalengan, potato productivity reached 26,364 kg/ha (using certified seeds) and 22,001 kg/
ha (using uncertified seeds), while in Batur, the productivity was about 16,976 kg/ha (using certified seeds) and
14,031 kg/ha (using uncertified seeds). The result of input and output analyses showed that in Pangalengan, potato
farming provide revenue and profit about Rp.70,417,354.00 and Rp.33,374,384.00/ha/season respectively (using
certified seeds), while uncertified seeds gave revenue and profit Rp.53,529,785.00/ha and Rp.24,224,677.00/ha/
season, respectively. Whereas in Batur, the use of certified seeds provide revenue and profit Rp.67,130,010.00 and
Rp.43,411,818.00/ha/season respectively, while uncertified seeds provide Rp.51,338,645.00 and Rp.28,749,170.00/
ha/season respectively. The results of t-test showed that in Pangalengan, the use of certified seeds was significantly
different in term of production cost and revenue, while in Batur, there were a significant different on the revenue and
benefit between the use of certified and uncertified seeds.


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum; Potato farming; Potato seeds; Income

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n2.2010.p%25p

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