Sistem Pengadaan dan Distribusi Benih Bawang Merah pada Tingkat Petani di Kabupaten Brebes

rofik Sinung Basuki

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mengetahui sumber benih, cara pengadaan, dan kualitas benih yang ditanam
petani, serta ketersediaan benih bawang merah bermutu untuk petani di Brebes. Hasil penelitian digunakan sebagai
masukan pembuatan kebijakan untuk memperbaiki sistem perbenihan bawang merah di Brebes. Penelitian deskriptif
ini dilakukan di Brebes pada bulan September 2007. Penelitian dilakukan di tiga desa yang dipilih secara purposive
berdasarkan jenis varietas dominan yang ditanam di lokasi tersebut. Responden dipilih secara purposive berdasarkan
jenis varietas yang ditanam, yaitu 35 petani yang menanam benih varietas lokal dan 10 petani yang menanam benih
varietas impor. Selain petani, juga dipilih secara purposive sembilan responden pedagang atau penangkar benih. Data
primer dikumpulkan melalui wawancara individual dengan responden menggunakan kuesioner. Data yang terkumpul
dianalisis menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sumber benih varietas
lokal yang ditanam oleh sebagian besar petani responden (94%) berasal dari benih yang dihasilkan petani sendiri
dari penyisihan hasil bawang konsumsi musim sebelumnya dan sebagian kecil (6%) berasal dari benih yang dibeli
dari petani lain, sedangkan benih varietas impor yang ditanam petani, seluruhnya (100%) berasal dari pembelian di
toko atau pedagang benih. Petani memproduksi benih sendiri dengan cara menyisihkan sebagian dari hasil bawang
konsumsi musim sebelumnya yang pertumbuhan tanamannya masih bagus, produktivitas, dan kemurnian varietasnya
masih tinggi. Kualitas benih yang dihasilkan petani cukup baik dalam hal daya tumbuh (99,1%), tingkat infeksi oleh
penyakit tular benih (1,7%), dan persentase kemurnian varietas (99,3%). Benih yang tersedia di lokasi penelitian,
sebagian besar (>94%) berasal dari benih hasil produksi petani, tidak ada yang berasal dari hasil penangkaran benih
secara khusus.

ABSTRACT. Basuki, R.S. 2010. Procurement and Distribution System of Shallots Seed at Farmer Level at
Brebes District. The objectives of the research were to understand the sources, procurement methods, and quality
of shallots seed planted by farmers as well as the availability of good quality seed for farmers in Brebes. The result
of this study was used as policy input for improving the existing shallots seed system in Brebes. Descriptive research
was conducted in Brebes on September 2007, in three villages selected purposively based on the dominant shallots
varieties planted by farmers in the locations. Respondents were selected purposively based on the shallots varieties
planted, consisted of 35 farmers who planted local varieties and 10 farmers who planted imported variety of shallots
seed. In addition, nine shallots seed growers or traders were also selected purposively as respondents. Primary data
was collected through individual interview with respondents. The results showed that most farmers (94%) who planted
local varieties used their own seed obtained from previous harvest, and only 6% used their seed from other farmers.
Meanwhile, all farmers (100%) who planted imported seed they bought from seed stores or traders. Farmers obtained
their own shallots seed from the healthy, productive, and high purity variety from previous harvest. The quality of
farmers’ seed was good in terms of high percentage of seed growth (99.1%), low disease infected seed (1.7%), and
high purity of variety (99.3%). The availability of seed mostly (>94%) was farmers’ seed, and almost no sources of
seed obtained from special seed growers.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Seed; Seed procurement; Seed distribution

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n2.2010.p%25p

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