Respons Beberapa Varietas Nasional Gladiol terhadap Pemupukan N dan K

Muchdar Soedarjo, Sri Wuryaningsih

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Nitrogen merupakan salah satu hara makro pembatas pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif tanaman
gladiol, sedangkan kalium sebagai katalisator pada proses metabolisme. Percobaan lapangan untuk mengevaluasi
pengaruh pupuk N dan K pada pertumbuhan, kualitas bunga, dan subang beberapa varietas gladiol dilakukan di
Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dari bulan Juni sampai Desember 2009. Rancangan percobaan yang
digunakan ialah petak terpisah dengan dua ulangan. Petak utama adalah tiga varietas gladiol yaitu (1) Nabila, (2)
Clara, dan (3) Kaifa. Anak petak adalah kombinasi pemupukan N dan K yaitu (1) N10K10, (2) N10K20, (3) N10K30, (4)
N20K10, (5) N20K20, (6) N20K30, (7) N30K10, (8) N30K20, dan (9) N30K30. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat
interaksi nyata antara varietas dan pemupukan terhadap panjang tangkai bunga dan jumlah kuntum bunga/tangkai.
Nitrogen (N) dan kalium (K) merupakan hara makro yang membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman yang berperan besar
pada kualitas bunga dan subang gladiol, dengan respons berbeda bagi setiap varietas. Varietas Clara paling responsif
terhadap pemupukan nitrogen, dengan pemupukan N30K10 menghasilkan tangkai bunga terpanjang (73,16 cm), dan
jumlah subang kelas A terbanyak (9,83 subang). Pemberian pupuk N20K10 pada varietas Kaifa dapat menghasilkan
tangkai bunga terpanjang dan jumlah kuntum bunga terbanyak. Pemupukan N dan K dapat diimplementasikan dengan
mempertimbangkan varietas gladiol yang ditanam.

ABSTRACT. Soedarjo, M. and S. Wuryaningsih. 2010. Response of Several Gladiolus Varieties on N and
K Fertilizer Application. Nitrogen is one of the nutrients limiting the growth either vegetative or generative of
gladiolus, while potassium as a catalyst in the process of metabolism.A field experiment to evaluate the effect of N
and K fertilizers on the growth and development of three varieties of gladiolus was conducted at the experimental
garden of The Indonesian Ornamental Crop Research Institute from June to December 2009. A split plot design with
two replications was used. The main plot was three gladiolus varieties consisted of (1) Nabila, (2) Clara, and (3)
Kaifa. The subplot was combinations of N and K fertilizers, namely (1) N10K10, (2) N10K20, (3) N10K30, (4) N20K10,
(5) N20K20, (6) N20K30, (7) N30K10, (8) N30K20, and (9) N30K30. The Research results showed that there were interactions
between varieties and N K fertilizers on flower spike length and number of floret/spike. Nitrogen (N) and potassium
(K), the macro nutrient that limits plant growth, and played a significant role in the quality of flowers and corms of
gladiolus, responses for each variety. Clara varieties was the most responsive to nitrogen fertilization, with fertilizer
application of N30K10 produce longest flower stalks (73.16 cm), and highest number of class A corm (9.83). Fertilizer
application N20K10 on Kaifa varieties produce the longest flower stalk and the largest flower number/spike. Nitrogen
and Kalium fertilization could be implemented by considering the varity of gladiolus.


Keywords


Gladiolus hybridus; Variety; N and K fertilizers application; Flower yield; Flower quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n2.2010.p%25p

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