Penentuan Indeks Kebutuhan Hara Makro pada Tanaman Mangga dengan Metode Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System

S Juliati

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Mangga merupakan komoditas buah yang memiliki nilai strategis untuk peningkatan ekspor dan
pengembangan agroindustri buah-buahan di Indonesia. Pemupukan pada tanaman mangga selama ini didasarkan
pada pengalaman dan kebiasaan petani, belum mengacu pada kebutuhan tanaman. Diagnosis and Recommendation
Integrated System (DRIS) merupakan salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk mendiagnosis kebutuhan hara tanaman
dengan memperhitungkan perbandingan sepasang hara yang terkandung dalam jaringan tanaman. Untuk efisiensi
pemupukan, metode ini dinilai lebih baik dibanding beberapa metode lainnya. Tujuan penelitian ialah mendapatkan
indeks hara dan nilai keseimbangan hara makro (N, P, K, Ca, dan Mg) pada tanaman mangga. Penelitian dilaksanakan
di perkebunan mangga Arumanis umur 10 tahun milik PT Trigatra Rajasa, Situbondo, Jawa Timur mulai Januari
2004 hingga Desember 2005. Pemilihan lokasi sampel didasarkan atas perbedaan kedalaman solum, yakni solum
dangkal (<75 cm), solum sedang (75-150 cm), dan solum dalam (>150 cm). Penetapan sampel dilakukan secara
purposive random sampling sebanyak 12 tanaman untuk masing-masing kriteria kedalaman solum. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa hara P merupakan hara dominan yang dibutuhkan tanaman, diikuti oleh hara Mg dan N untuk
solum sedang dan dalam, sedangkan untuk solum dangkal diperlukan hara P diikuti hara N. Sementara hara K dan
Ca terdapat dalam jumlah yang cukup untuk semua lokasi. Rasio N/P untuk solum dalam (6,85) dan solum sedang
(6,90) berada pada kisaran seimbang/normal (nilai N/P seimbang: 6,29-6,92), sementara untuk solum dangkal (6,07)
berada pada kisaran kekahatan ringan (nilai N/P : 5,99–6,29). Rasio nilai N/K (solum dalam = 3,23, solum sedang
= 3,38, dan solum dangkal = 3,02), berada pada kisaran normal/cukup (nilai N/K seimbang: 3,09-3,33). Demikian
juga rasio K/P (solum dalam = 2,15, solum sedang = 2,06, dan solum dangkal = 2,03), berada pada kisaran normal/
cukup (kisaran K/P seimbang: 2,04-2,12). Hasil penelitian ini menggambarkan bahwa unsur P merupakan unsur
paling dominan yang dibutuhkan tanaman mangga di lokasi tersebut, menyusul unsur N dan K. Terdapat hubungan
antara nisbah hara N/P, N/K, dan K/P terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi, dan produktivitas tanaman, di mana bila
masing-masing nisbah hara tersebut berada dalam kisaran seimbang, maka pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman
juga menjadi lebih baik. Model DRIS dapat direkomendasikan untuk membantu pengelolaan pemberian hara yang
efisien sesuai kebutuhan tanaman.

ABSTRACT. Juliati, S. 2010. Determination Macro Nutrient Index on Mango by DRIS Method. Mango is
priority commodity to increase export and as fruit agroindustry in Indonesia. Up till now fertilization on mango has
been done based on farmer’s pratices. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) is a method to
determine nutrient requirement by analyzing nutrient ratio in pairs whitin plant tissue. To obtain the efficiency in
fertilization this method was better than other method. The experiment was carried out in 10 years age of mango
orchard of cv. Arumanis at PT Trigatra Rajasa Situbondo, East Java, from January 2004 until December 2005. Selection
of sample location was based on soil solum depth that were shallow solum (<75 cm), intermediate solum (75-150
cm), and deep solum (>150 cm). Twelve trees at each soil solum depth were chosen as sample units determined
by purposive random sampling. The results showed that P was the most dominant nutrient element required by the
plant in all location, followed by Mg and N for intermediate and deep solum, while for shallow solum the dominant
nutrient was P followed by N. Kalium and Ca nutrient in were efficient all location. N/P nutrient balanced ratio for
deep solum was 6.85, 6.90 for intermediate solum and the normal range was N/P value : 6.29-6.92. For shallow
solum the N/P nutrient balanced ratio was 6.07 at low deficiency range (N/P value: 5.99–6.29). For N/K ratio value
(deep solum = 3.23, intermediate solum = 3.38, and shallow solum = 3.02), all solums had balance range (N/K
balanced value : 3.09-3.33). Similarly for K/P ratio (deep solum = 2.15, intermediate solum = 2.06 and shallow
solum = 2.03), all solums had balanced range (K/P balanced ratio : 2.04-2.12). Results of this study described that P
was the most dominant nutrient required by the plant in the location. There was relationship between N/P, N/K, and
K/P ratio on growth, production, and productivity. If each nutrient ratio was at balance condition it would be obtained
the optimum growth and production of the plant. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System model could be
used to issue recommendation of efficient soil fertilization as it is matched with plant requirement.


Keywords


Mangifera indica; DRIS model; Nutrient index; Nutrient balanced ratio.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n2.2010.p%25p

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