Preferensi Konsumen terhadap Atribut Kualitas Empat Jenis Sayuran Minor

Thomas Agus Soetiarso

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Keberadaan kelompok sayuran minor (under-utilized/indigenous) mulai terancam kepunahan karena
digantikan oleh beberapa spesies kultivasi. Kurang berkembangnya kelompok sayuran minor diindikasikan oleh atribut
kualitas yang dimiliki oleh komoditas tersebut yang relatif belum sebanding dengan kelompok sayuran prioritas, seperti
kentang, kubis, dan tomat. Penelitian bertujuan mengidentifikasi preferensi konsumen terhadap atribut kualitas sayuran
minor. Penelitian dilaksanakan melalui survai konsumen di Kelurahan Sukabungah, Kecamatan Sukajadi, Kotamadya
Bandung, Jawa Barat sejak bulan April sampai dengan Juni 2007. Pemilihan lokasi kotamadya dilakukan secara sengaja,
sedangkan pemilihan kecamatan, kelurahan, dan responden ibu rumah tangga sebanyak 50 orang dilakukan secara
acak. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Pada penelitian
ini komoditas sayuran minor yang diteliti adalah koro, katuk, labu siam, dan kecipir. Preferensi konsumen terhadap
atribut kualitas sayuran minor dianalisis dengan teknik peringkat (ranking) dan diuji dengan uji Chi-square. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, preferensi konsumen terhadap atribut kualitas ialah: (1) koro: ukuran polong besar
(panjang 3 cm, dan lebar 2 cm), warna kulit ungu tua, kekerasan polong renyah, warna daging putih, dan rasanya
gurih, (2) katuk: warna daun hijau muda, ukuran daun sedang (panjang 4 cm dan lebar 2 cm), jumlah daun/tangkai
banyak, dan rasanya agak manis, (3) labu siam: ukuran buah sedang (panjang 12 cm dan lebar 8 cm), warna kulit
hijau muda, kulit tanpa duri, kekerasan kulit sedang, kandungan getah sedikit, dan rasa agak manis, (4) kecipir: warna
kulit hijau muda, panjang sedang (18 cm), permukaan kulit halus, bentuk buah lurus, kekerasan buah renyah, dan
rasanya agak manis. Sayuran minor (koro, katuk, labu siam, dan kecipir) merepresentasikan sayuran murah tetapi
termasuk sumber nutrisi berkualitas tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar untuk memperbaiki
atribut sayuran minor sesuai dengan preferensi konsumen serta upaya untuk meningkatkan potensi ekonomis dan
pengembangan komoditas tersebut.

ABSTRACT. Soetiarso, T. A. 2010. Consumer’s Preference on Quality Attributes of Four Minor Vegetables. The
existence of minor (under-utilized/indigenous) vegetables is beginning to extinct because they are replaced by some
cultivated species. Slow development of minor vegetables is also caused by the product quality attributes of those
vegetables that have not been recognized compared to the priority vegetables, such as potato, cabbage, and tomato.
The study was aimed to identify consumer preference on quality attributes of four minor vegetables. A consumer
survey was carried out in Sukabungah Village, Sukajadi Sub-district, Bandung, West Java from April to June 2007.
Location of survey was purposively selected, while 50 household mothers were randomly chosen. Data were collected
through interviews by using a structured questionnaire. Minor vegetables included in this study were lima bean,
star gooseberry, chayote, and winged bean. Consumer preference on product attributes of minor vegetables were
analyzed by using the ranking technique and tested with Chi-square. Results indicated that consumer preferences on
quality attributes for minor vegetable were as follows: (1) lima bean: large pod size (20 cm length and 2 cm width),
dark purple skin color, crisp pod hardness, white flesh color, and delicious taste, (2) star gooseberry: light green leaf
color, medium leaf size (4 cm length and 2 cm width), much number of leaves/branches, and slightly sweet taste,
(3) chayote: medium fruit size (12 cm length and 8 cm width), light green skin color, thornless skin, medium skin
hardness, little sap content, and slightly sweet taste, (4) winged bean: light green skin color, medium length about
18 cm, smooth skin surface, straight fruit shape, crisp fruit hardnes, and slightly sweet taste. Minor vegetables (lima
bean, star gooseberry, chayote, winged bean) represent inexpensive but high quality nutritional contents. The results
of this consumer survey may be used as a preference-based feedback for improving the product attibutes of minor
vegetables to increase their economic potentials.


Keywords


Minor vegetables; Phaseolus lunatus; Sauropus androginus; Sechium edule; Psophocarpus tetragonolobus; Quality attribute; Consumer preference

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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