Analisis Keragaman Genetik Manggis Menggunakan Teknik Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

Makful Makful, Sudarmadi Poernomo, Sunyoto Sunyoto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian dilaksanakan dari bulan Maret 2004 sampai dengan Desember 2005 di Laboratorium Pemuliaan
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah dan Laboratorium Bioteknologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Perkebunan. Penelitian
bertujuan mengetahui keragaman genetik manggis berdasarkan analisis molekuler dengan teknik AFLP menggunakan
lima pasang primer. Analisis keragaman menggunakan program NTSys. Hasil amplifikasi amplified fragment length
plymorphism (AFLP) terhadap sembilan sampel genom manggis menunjukkan adanya keragaman yang tinggi. Dengan
metode unweighted pair-group with arithme average (UPGMA) pada koefisien jarak genetik 60% menghasilkan
satu kelompok genom. Pada nilai koefisien kesamaan genetik 70%, aksesi manggis dapat dikategorikan menjadi tiga
kelompok yaitu kelompok 1 terdiri atas sampel 8-(Garcinia sp. manggis hutan-1), 13-(G. mundar), 17-(Garcinia
sp. manggis hutan-asam), kelompok 2 mencakup sampel 19-(G. mangostana Pasarminggu-2), 20-( G. mangostana
Pasarminggu-1), 22-(G. mangostana Jayanti-2), dan kelompok 3 terdiri atas sampel 25-(G. malaccensis-Jambi),
26-(G. malaccensis Bukit Kawang Medan PK 1), dan 27-(G. malaccensis Bukit Lang PK 2). Informasi variabilitas
genetik diharapkan dapat mendukung program pemuliaan manggis.

ABSTRACT. Makful, S. Purnomo, and Sunyoto. 2010. Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Mangosteen Based
on the Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Technique. This experiment was conducted from
March 2004 to December 2005 at the Laboratory of Plant Breeding of Indonesian Fruit Research Institute and
the Laboratory of Biotechnology of Indonesian Estate Crop Research Institute. The objective of the study was to
determine genetic diversity of mangosteen. The method used was AFLP technique with five pairs of primers, while
data obtained was analyzed by the NTSys program. From the AFLP amplification of nine DNA samples, it was
proven that the accessions of mangosteen had a high degree of diversity. Based on analysis of AFLP and unweighted
pair-group with arithme average (UPGMA) it was shown that the samples of mangosteen could be grouped into one
cluster at relative ecludian distance of 60% and into three clusters at relative ecludian distance of 70%, i.e. cluster
1for sample 8-( Garcinia sp. manggis hutan-1), 13-(G. mundar), 17-( Garcinia sp. manggis hutan-asam) samples,
cluster 2 for sample 19-(G. mangostana Pasarminggu-2), 20-(G. mangostana Pasarminggu-1), 22-(G. mangostana
Jayanti-2) samples, and cluster 3 for sample 25-(G. malaccensis-Jambi), 26-(G. malaccensis Bukit Kawang Medan
PK 1), and 27-(G. malaccensis Bukit Lang PK 2) samples. Information of genetic variability is expected to support
the mangosteen breeding program.


Keywords


Garcinia sp.; Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP); Genetic diversity.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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