Efikasi dan Persistensi Minyak Serai sebagai Biopestisida terhadap Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

Ahsol Hasyim, Wiwin Setiawati, R Murtiningsih, Eri Sofiari

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Helicoverpa armigera merupakan hama penting pada tanaman cabai merah. Kehilangan hasil akibat serangan
H. armigera dapat mencapai 60%. Pengendalian yang umum dilakukan adalah menggunakan insektisida secara intensif,
yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatif. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh berbagai konsentrasi
minyak serai terhadap aktivitas biologi larva H. armigera. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan Rumah Kasa
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang dari bulan Juni sampai Desember 2009 pada suhu 27±20C dan kelembaban
75-80%. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam empat tahap kegiatan, yaitu pengaruh minyak serai terhadap: (1) repelensi larva
H. armigera instar II, (2) indeks nutrisi larva H. armigera instar III, (3) toksisitas larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III,
serta (4) persistensi minyak serai dalam pakan H. armigera dan pengaruhnya terhadap mortalitas larva H. armigera
instar III. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan ialah acak kelompok yang terdiri atas enam perlakuan dengan empat
ulangan. Penelitian menggunakan metode pencelupan (dipping methods). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak
serai dapat digunakan sebagai penolak larva H. armigera instar II, dengan tingkat repelensi kelas II (20-40%) dan kelas
III (40-60%). Aplikasi minyak serai pada konsentrasi 3.000-5.000 ppm dalam pakan dapat menurunkan laju konsumsi
relatif, laju pertumbuhan relatif, efisiensi konversi makanan yang dicerna dan yang dimakan, serta dapat menghambat
makan larva H. armigera sebesar 50%. Penggunaan minyak serai dapat menurunkan bobot pupa H. armigera jantan
dan betina. Nilai LC50 untuk larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III berturut-turut ialah 12.795,45, 8.327,42, dan 3.324,89
ppm, sedang nilai LC95 untuk larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III berturut-turut sebesar 10.564,59, 12.535,12, dan
4.725,30 ppm. Residu minyak serai dalam pakan H. armigera hanya berkisar antara 1- 4 hari setelah pemaparan atau
pada 5 HSP toksisitas menurun drastis. Minyak serai sebagai insektisida nabati mempunyai tingkat persistensi yang
relatif rendah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, minyak serai dapat digunakan sebagai insektisida yang potensial
untuk dikembangkan secara komersial dan ramah lingkungan dalam rangka pengendalian H. armigera.

ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A., W. Setiawati, R. Murtiningsih, and E. Sofiari. 2010. Efficacy and Persistence of Citronella
Oil as A Biopesticide Against Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.. The fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubn.) is one of
the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest is up to 60%. The chemical treatment for
controlling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. Studies were conducted to
assess the biological activity of citronella oil against tomato fruit worm, H. armigera from June to December 2009 at
the Laboratory and the Screenhouse at Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute. All the bioassays were conducted under
controlled environmental conditions (27± 20C and 75-80% RH). Four bioassay steps were performed, i.e the effect
of citronella oil on percentage repellency of second instar larvae of H. armigera, the antifeedant effect of citronella
oil against third instar larvae of H. armigera, toxicity of citronella oil on first, second, and third instar larvae of H.
armigera and persistence of citronella oil and is effect of mortality of H. armigera. The results indicated that citronella
oil significantly repellened to second larvae of H. armigera with the repellency level of relative lowest II (20-40%) and
III (40-60%). Applications of citronella oil at 3,000 until 5,000 ppm concentrations reduced the food consumption
index, growth rate, approximate digestability, efficiency of conversion of digested food and feeding deterrent was reduced
by 50%. Citronella oil significantly decreased the growth and the development of both pupal male and female of H.
armigera. The percentage of mortality rate varied significantly among the H. armigera larvae tested and the values of
LC50 for first, second, and third larvae instar of H. armigera were 12,795.45, 8,327.42, and 3,324.89 ppm, respectively.
Meanwhile LC95 value at the first, second, and third larvae instar of H. armigera were 10,564.59, 12,535.12, and 4,725.30
ppm, respectively. Residual activity of citronella oil were found to be moderately toxic to H. armigera. The residue
of citronella on food H. armigera was about 1-4 days after treatment. However, toxicity decreased significantly after
5 days. These results clearly showed that citronella oil was not persistent to the environment due to its volatile nature.
These results suggested that the application of citronella oil is potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for
the control of the agricultural pests H. armigera.


Keywords


Helicoverpa armigera; Citronella oil; Antifeedant; Biopesticide; Repellent; Toxicity; Persistence.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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