Cara Pengendalian Nonkimiawi terhadap Serangga Vektor Kutudaun dan Intensitas Serangan Penyakit Virus Mosaik pada Tanaman Cabai Merah

Nani Gunaeni, AW Wulandari

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penyakit virus mosaik pada cabai merupakan salah satu penyakit penting yang disebabkan oleh
virus dan dapat menular dari tanaman sakit ke tanaman sehat lain melalui vektor kutu daun. Penelitian bertujuan
mendapatkan cara pengendalian vektor dan penyakit virus mosaik pada cabai yang efektif dan ramah lingkungan.
Perlakuan pengendalian nonkimiawi disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat kali ulangan. Penelitian
dilakukan di Subang pada 700 m dpl. sejak bulan Juni sampai dengan Desember 2005. Perlakuan yang diuji ialah:
(1) perangkap baki kuning, (2) tanaman pinggiran kubis, (3) mulsa plastik perak, (4) mulsa plastik hitam, (5) mulsa
jerami, (6) insektisida dengan bahan aktif imidakloprid dan profenofos 1x /minggu, dan (7) kontrol. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan mulsa plastik perak maupun hitam berpengaruh paling baik terhadap penekanan
populasi vektor sebesar 78-88%, serangan penyakit virus mosaik sebesar 68-77% ataupun hama sebesar 57-73% dan
penyakit cabai lainnya 50-60% (penyakit antraknos, lalat buah, dan penyakit busuk buah), serta meningkatkan hasil
buah cabai sehat sekitar 2-4 kali hasil pada perlakuan kontrol.

ABSTRACT. Gunaeni, N. and A.W. Wulandari. 2010. Nonchemical Control Methods on Vector Population
and Plant Damages Due to Mosaic Virus Diseases on Hot Pepper. Mosaic diseases of pepper is one of the most
important problems caused by viruses. The disease spread from the infected plants to healthy ones via aphids as viral
vectors. The obejective of this study was to obtain effective and environmentally friendly control measures of viral
vectors and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted at Subang with the elevation of about 700 m asl.
from June to December 2005. A randomized block design with four replications was used in this experiment. The
treatments were: (1) yellow traps, (2) cabbage plants as a border, (3) silver plastic mulch, (4) black plastic mulch, (5)
straws mulch, (6) spray with insecticide with active ingredient imidakloprid and profenofos 1 x/week, and (7) control.
The results showed that: (1) the treatment did not affect plant height, but did to canopy width, (2) the silver and black
plastic mulch gave the best effect in suppressing vector population 78-88%, intensities of mosaic virus diseases 68-
77%, other pest 57-73% and diseases on hot pepper 50-60% i.e. anthracnose, fruitfly, and fruit root disease, and (3)
the treatments maintained yield of healthy fruit up to four times, over the control treatment.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Nonchemical control; Vector; Mosaic virus diseases.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n4.2010.p%25p

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