Analisis Konjoin Preferensi Konsumen terhadap Atribut Produk Kentang, Bawang Merah, dan Cabai Merah

Witono Adiyoga, Nurmalinda Nurmalinda

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Pemahaman tentang preferensi konsumen sangat penting dalam proses pengambilan keputusan pemangku kepentingan utama, termasuk bagi produsen/petani serta berbagai pihak terkait yang beroperasi di dalam subsektor sayuran. Penelitian ini diarahkan untuk menghimpun informasi menyangkut preferensi konsumen atau optimalisasi utilitas atribut produk untuk komoditas prioritas/unggulan sayuran (kentang, bawang merah, dan cabai merah). Kegiatan penelitian dilaksanakan pada Bulan Juni sampai dengan September 2008 di tiga kota besar konsumen sayuran, yaitu Jakarta (DKI Jaya), Bandung (Jawa Barat), dan Padang (Sumatera Barat). Penelitian survai menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur dilaksanakan untuk mewawancarai 335 responden yang dipilih secara acak di ketiga kota tersebut. Atribut produk yang diamati mencakup atribut eksternal, internal, dan organoleptik. Preferensi konsumen diidentifikasi menggunakan analisis konjoin yaitu salah satu modul dalam program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumen mengekspresikan preferensinya terhadap kentang yang berukuran 6­–8 butir/kg, berkulit mulus, dan memiliki jumlah mata sedikit (<10). Konsumen menganggap ukuran umbi kentang merupakan faktor terpenting dalam menilai atau membeli kentang, dan secara berturut-turut diikuti oleh faktor permukaan kulit serta jumlah mata. Sementara itu, bawang merah yang paling disukai konsumen ialah bawang merah dengan diameter umbi 2,5 cm, berwarna kulit merah-ungu tua, dan beraroma tidak menyengat. Urutan kepentingan atribut bawang merah menurut persepsi konsumen secara berturut-turut yaitu warna kulit, ukuran umbi, serta aroma. Sementara itu, konsumen lebih menyukai cabai merah yang besar, kulit berwarna merah terang, dan memiliki kepedasan agak pedas. Dalam konteks atribut produk cabai merah yang digunakan untuk mengukur preferensi, faktor terpenting yang berpengaruh dalam proses pengambilan keputusan yaitu warna kulit, dan secara berturut-turut diikuti oleh faktor jenis cabai serta tingkat kepedasan.

ABSTRACT. Adiyoga, W and Nurmalinda 2012. Conjoint Analysis of Consumer Preferences on Potato, Shallots, and Hot Pepper’s Product Attributes. Understanding consumer preferences is important in the context of decision-making of key stakeholders, including producers themselves, as well as development agencies that operate in the vegetable subsector. This study was aimed at collecting information on consumer preference or optimizing the utility of product attributes of vegetable priority crops (potato, shallots, and hot peppers). It was carried out in June-September 2008 in three big vegetable consuming cities, Jakarta (Capital Special-Region of Jakarta), Bandung (West Java), and Padang (West Sumatera). Survey method by using a structured questionnaire was implemented to interview 335 respondents randomly selected in the three cities. Parameters observed were external, internal, and organoleptic attributes. Consumer preferences were identified by using conjoint analysis – a module in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that consumers express their preference to potato that has some characteristics, such as medium size of tuber (6-8 tubers/kg), smooth-flawless skin, and few numbers of eyes (<10). Tuber size were perceived as the most important factor affecting purchasing decision, and followed by skin and number of eyes. The most preferred shallots was the one that has a diameter of 2.5 cm in size, dark-violet red skin color, and least strong aroma. The rank of shallot’s attributes importance as perceived by consumers were skin color, tuber size, and aroma, consecutively. Meanwhile, consumers prefer hot peppers that has the characteristics of bright-red skin color, big-hot peppers type, and slightly hot. Within the context of measuring preference, the most important hot peppers attribute that influences consumer decision making were skin color, and then followed by hot peppers type, and hotness.


Keywords


Potato; Shallots; Hot peppers; Survey; Consumer preference; Product attributes; Conjoint analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n3.2012.p292-302

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