Penggunaan Gliocompost untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium dan Meningkatkan Produktivitas Bunga Krisan Potong

Wakiah Nuryani, Evy Silvia Yusuf, Indiarto Budi Rahardjo, Ika Djatnika

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Layu Fusarium yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. tacheiphillum merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada tanaman krisan. Penyakit ini sulit dikendalikan karena patogennya bersifat tular tanah. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui peranan  penggunaan Gliocompost dalam upaya mengurangi penggunaan pestisida sintetik dan pupuk kimia yang berlebih tetapi murah, efektif, ramah lingkungan, dan dapat meningkatkan kualitas serta hasil bunga potong krisan. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Segunung dan Rumah Plastik  Kelompok Tani Sekar Poncokusumo,  Malang – Jawa Timur (850 m dpl.), mulai Bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2010. Penelitian menggunakan  rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan.  Perlakuan terdiri atas delapan paket  yaitu: (A)  pupuk kandang sapi (organik) setara 50 t/ha (cara Poncokusumo); (B) pupuk kimia sintetik sesuai  SOP  (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, dan 350 kg/ha ZK); (C) pupuk  kandang sapi (organik) sesuai SOP (30 t/ha) + pupuk kimia sintetik sesuai SOP (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, dan 350 kg/ha ZK); (D) Gliocompost (4 t/ha); (E) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + pupuk kimia sintetik sesuai SOP (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, dan 350 kg/ha ZK ); (F) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + cara Poncokusumo (100%), yaitu pupuk kimia sintetik ( 200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, dan 350 kg/ha ZK) + fungisida (piraklostrobin 250 g/l dan azoksistrobin 200 g/l + difenokonazol 125 g/l); (G) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + cara Poncokusumo (50%), yaitu pupuk kimia sintetik (100 kg/ha Urea, 150 kg/ha SP-36, dan 175 kg/ha ZK) + fungisida (piraklostrobin 125 g/l dan azoksistrobin 100 g/l + difenokonazol 62,5 g/l); dan (H) kontrol negatif (tanpa menggunakan pupuk dan fungisida). Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa paket penggabungan antara Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + cara Poncokusumo (50%), yaitu pupuk kimia sintetik  (100 kg/ha Urea, 150 kg/ha SP-36, dan 175 kg/ha ZK) + fungisida (piraklostrobin 125 g/l dan azoksistrobin 100 g/l + difenokonazol 62,5 g/l), merupakan teknik pengendalian yang paling efektif dapat mengurangi penggunaan pupuk kimia serta pestisida sintetik masing-masing 50%. Aplikasi Gliocompost dapat mengurangi penggunaan pestisida sintetik dan pupuk anorganik sebesar 50%. Selain itu perlakuan Gliocompost dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman, produksi, dan lama kesegaran bunga potong pada suhu ruangan.

ABSTRACT. Nuryani, W, Silvia Yusuf, E, Rahardjo, IB, and Djatnika, I 2012. The Use of Gliocompost for Control Fusarium wilt Disease and Increasing Productivity of Chrysanthemum Cut Flower. Fusarium wilt  caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. tacheiphillum is one of the important disease on chrysanthemum plant. The disease is difficult to control because the pathogen is a soil borne disease. This study was aimed to identify the role of the use of Gliocompost in an effort to reduce using of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers were excessive but cheap, effective, environmentally friendly, and improve quality and yield of chrysanthemum cut flower. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Indonesian Ornamental Plant Research Institute and Sekar Farmers Group Plastichouse Poncokusumo, Malang - East Java (850 m asl.), from January to December 2010. The study was used a randomized block design which three replications. The treatment consisted of eight packages, that is: (A) cow manure (organic) equivalent of 50 t/ha (Poncokusumo ways), (B) synthetic chemical fertilizers according to SOP (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, and 350 kg/ha ZK), (C) cow manure (organic) in accordance with SOP (30 t/ha) + synthetic chemical fertilizers according to SOP (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, and 350 kg/ha ZK), (D) Gliocompost (4 t/ha), (E) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + synthetic chemical fertilizers according to SOP (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, and 350 kg/ha ZK), (F) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + Poncokusumo ways (100%), a synthetic chemical fertilizer (200 kg/ha Urea, 300 kg/ha SP-36, and 350 kg/ha ZK) + fungicide (pyraclostrobin 250 g/l and azocsistrobin 200 g/l + difenokonazol 125 g/l), (G) Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + Poncokusumo ways (50%), a synthetic chemical fertilizer (100 kg/ha Urea, 150 kg/ha SP-36, and 175 kg/ha ZK) + fungicide (pyraclostrobin 125 g/l and azocsistrobin 100 g/l + difenokonazol 62.5 g/l), and (H) negative control (without fertilizer and fungicides). The results showed that combination package between Gliocompost (4 t/ha) + Poncokusumo ways (50%), synthetic chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha Urea, 150 kg/ha SP-36, and 175 kg/ha ZK) + fungicide (pyraclostrobin 125 g/l and azocsistrobin 100 g/l + difenokonazol 62.5 g/l), was the most effective control techniques and could reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides 50% respectively. Gliocompost application could reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and inorganic fertilizers by 50%. However, application of Gliocompost also could increase plant growth, production, and long freshness of cut flowers at room temperature.

Keywords


Dendranthema grandiflora; Fusarium oxysporum sp. tacheiphillum; Gliocompost; Biopesticide; Biofertilizer; Cut flower quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n3.2012.p285-291

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