Trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) pada Bunga dan Buah Manggis Serta Hubungannya dengan Kejadian Burik

Fardedi -, N Maryana, S Manuwoto, R Poerwanto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Burik merupakan salah satu penyebab rendahnya mutu buah manggis di Indonesia. Saat ini informasi tentang kejadian burik pada buah manggis di Indonesia baik penyebab maupun pengelolaannya  masih sangat terbatas. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mempelajari burik buah, dinamika populasi trips, dan hubungan populasi trips dengan kejadian burik pada buah manggis. Penelitian tentang asosiasi serangga trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dengan bunga dan buah serta hubungannya dengan kejadian burik pada buah manggis dilaksanakan di Desa Cengal, Kecamatan Leuwiliang, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat dari bulan Mei 2009 sampai dengan Agustus 2010. Pengamatan laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Biosistematika Serangga dan Laboratorium Anatomi Tumbuhan, Institut  Pertanian  Bogor.  Bagian tanaman yang diamati ialah daun muda, kuncup, bunga mekar sempurna, dan buah umur 1–16 minggu setelah antesis (MSA).  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan burik hanya merusak lapisan kutikula dan eksokarp buah manggis. Scirtothrips dorsalis dan Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) ditemukan pada daun muda, kuncup, bunga, dan buah manggis. Populasi imago S. dorsalis dan T. hawaiiensis tertinggi ialah 1,15 dan 0,95 indiividu/bunga mekar sempurna, populasi larva tertinggi ditemui pada buah berumur 2 MSA yaitu 8,75 individu. Populasi trips semakin menurun dengan bertambahnya umur buah manggis. Gejala burik paling banyak  muncul pada buah umur 2 dan 3 MSA. Terdapat korelasi antara kepadatan populasi trips pada buah umur 2 dan 3 MSA dengan kejadian burik pada buah manggis. Kepadatan trips sebanyak 10,6 inidividu dapat menimbulkan gejala burik pada buah manggis umur 2 MSA. Karena populasi trips dan gejala burik muncul pada awal pertumbuhan buah, tindakan preventif dengan insektisida dapat dilakukan sebelum tanaman manggis memasuki periode berbunga.

ABSTRACT. Fardedi, Maryana, N, Manuwoto, S and Poerwanto, R 2012. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Flower and Fruit of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Correlation to Fruit Scars. Scars on mangosteen decreases the quality of this fruit economically. At the moment, information about management and causal factor of the scars on mangosteen in Indonesia are very limited. The aims of this research were to investigate the fruit scars, the population dynamic of thrips, and the correlation to the fruit scars. The association between thrips and mangosteen flowers and fruits as well as the correlation between thrips population to the fruit scars was investigated. The research was conducted at Cengal Village, Bogor District, West Java from May 2009 to August 2010. Laboratory investigation was carried out in Insect Biosystematics Laboratory and Plant Anatomy Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University. Parts of plant observed were the shoot, flower bud, opened-flower, and fruit of 1 - 16 weeks after anthesis (WAA). The scars occurred in fruit cuticle and exocarp. There were two species of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips hawaiiensis, that were found at flower bud, opened- flower, and fruit. The highest larva population of S. dorsalis  and T. hawaiiensis imago were 1.15 and 0.95 each flowers, the highest larva population was on 2 WAA fruits (8.75). The population of adults for both species was high in opened-flower. The population of larva was also high on fruit 2 WAA. The population of thrips decreased along with fruit growth. Scars occurred on fruit 2 and 3 WAA. There was a correlation between the abundance of thrips on fruit 2–3 WAA and scars at mangosteen fruits. Trips density 10.6 could cause scars on 2 WAA fruits. Thrips population and the symptoms of scars occurred on the early growth of fruits, therefore to control the trips using insecticide was suggested to be applied before flowering stage.

Keywords


Trips; Burik; Manggis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n2.2012.p120-129

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