Kajian Potensi Predator Coccinellidae untuk Pengendalian Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) pada Cabai Merah

Bagus Kukuh Udiarto

Abstract


Kutukebul Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) merupakan hama penting pada pertanaman cabai merah dansatu-satunya penular virus Gemini (virus kuning). Virus kuning keriting yang disebabkan oleh virus Gemini sekarang menjadiepidemik di berbagai daerah seperti Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, DI Yogyakarta, Sumatera Utara, dan Lampung, dengan intensitasserangan antara 20 sampai 100%. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan predator dari jenis Coccinellidae yang benar-benar efektifuntuk mengendalikan B. tabaci pada pertanaman sayuran khususnya cabai merah. Kajian potensi Coccinellidae sebagai predatorB. tabaci dilaksanakan pada tiga tahap percobaan, yaitu eksplorasi predator, uji daya pemangsaan, dan uji preferensi. Eksplorasipredator dilaksanakan dengan metode survei di tiga provinsi sentra produksi cabai merah dan daerah endemi penyakit virus kuningyaitu Jawa Barat (Kabupaten Cirebon dan Garut), Jawa Tengah (Kabupaten Brebes dan Magelang), dan DI Yogyakarta (KabupatenBantul dan Sleman). Eksplorasi predator dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan secara langsung serangga yang diduga sebagai predator(pendugaan predator berdasarkan pengamatan dan studi literatur), kemudian di inventarisasi dan diuji keefektifannya sebagai musuhalami melalui uji daya pemangsaan dan preferensi terhadap B. tabaci dan hama kutu daun cabai lainnya. Penelitian dilaksanakan ditiga provinsi, yaitu Jawa Barat (Kabupaten Cirebon dan Garut), Jawa Tengah (Kabupaten Brebes dan Magelang), dan DI Yogyakarta(Kabupaten Bantul dan Sleman) dari bulan Mei sampai dengan September 2010. Hasil eksplorasi dan identifikasi ditemukan 11 jenispredator yang berpotensi sebagai musuh alami B. tabaci, yang terdiri atas delapan jenis dari ordo Coleoptera famili Coccinellidae yaituMenochilus sexmaculatus, Coccinella transversalis, Verania lineata, Illeis sp., Curinus coeruleus, Delphastus sp., Harmonia sp., danMenochilus sp., satu jenis dari famili Stapilinidae yaitu Paederus fuscipes, satu jenis dari ordo Hemiptera: famili Miridae (Compylommasp.), satu jenis dari ordo Neuroptera famili Hemerobiidae, dan satu jenis ordo Diptera (Condylostylus sp). Berdasarkan distribusi,kelimpahan, uji daya pemangsaan dan uji preferensi terhadap B. tabaci, maka spesies predator yang berpotensi tertinggi sebagaiagens hayati B. tabaci ialah V. lineata, kemudian diikuti oleh M. sexmaculatus dan C. transversalis (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae).Pemanfaatan predator B. tabaci potensial dapat diuji dan diaplikasikan pada skala yang lebih besar.

ABSTRACT

Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) is one of important pest on vegetable crops, especially on family of Solanaceae, particularly on chili peppers.Whiteflybecomes very critical pest because it become an important vector for Gemini virus. Many regions in West Java, Central Java,Yogyakarta, South Sumatera, and Lampung became endemic of leafroll yellow virus caused by Gemini virus in the recent year withdisease intensity from 20 till 100%. Objective of this research was to obtain potential and effective predators to control B. tabacifrom West Java, Central Java, and Yogyakarta. Study of Coccinellidae potency as natural enemy to control B. tabaci have beendone through three stages started from predator exploration, predation, and preference test. Predators exploration was done in chilipepper production centre area in three province, namely West Java (Cirebon and Garut Districts), Central Java (Brebes and MagelangDistrict), and Yogyakarta (Bantul and Sleman District). Those areas were choosen as exploration area because beside as chili peppersproduction centre areas, they were also indicated as Gemini virus endemic area. Predator exploration was done by collecting insectsthat were indicated as predator (based on literature study). Predators that found in this exploration then be identified and tested fortheir effectiveness as natural enemies (predation and preference test). From the exploration and identification, there were found11 species of predator, nine of eleven predator were member of Coleoptera (eight of them were member of family Coccinellidae,namely Menochilus sexmaculatus, Coccinella transversalis, Verania lineata, Illeis sp., Curinus coeruleus, Delphastus sp., Harmoniasp., Menochilus sp., and one of them was include in family of Staphylinidae Paederus fuscipes. We also find one species fromordo Hemiptera, i.e. member of Miridae family: Compylomma sp., one species from ordo Neuroptera, family Hemerobiidae, andone species from ordo Diptera (Condylostylus sp). Based on distribution, severity and effectiveness test, it could be concluded thatpredator species which have the highest potency as natural agent for controlling B. tabaci were V. lineata, M. sexmaculatus, and C.transversalis (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae). The use of B. tabaci high potential predators can be tested and applied in higher scale.The use of B. tabaci high potential predators can be tested and applied in higher scale.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v22n1.2012.p76-84

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