Keragaman Sebelas Klon Mangga Komersial Indonesia (Variation of Eleven Clones Indonesian Commercial Mango)

nFN Tasliah, nFN Karsinah, Joko Prasetiyono

Abstract


Mangga merupakan salah satu buah penting di Indonesia. Tanaman mangga dapat menyerbuk silang sehingga menyebabkan adanya varian-varian mangga dengan nama yang sama. Arumanis dan Gedong Gincu merupakan varietas mangga komersial Indonesia untuk memenuhi pasar dalam negeri maupun internasional. Selain kedua varietas tersebut terdapat mangga Gadung sebagai mangga komersial yang berkarakter mirip dengan Arumanis, oleh karena itu para pakar mangga terdahulu menyatakan bahwa mangga Gadung-21 sinonim dengan mangga Arumanis-143 sehingga mangga Gadung-21 tidak bisa dilepas sebagai varietas unggul baru. Pohon induk varietas tersebut telah dikoleksi di Kebun Percobaan Cukurgondang dan dalam koleksi tersebut terdapat beberapa klon mangga Arumanis, Gedong, dan Gadung. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaman genetik 11 klon mangga komersial Indonesia berdasarkan marka mikrosatelit. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan ialah 11 klon mangga yang meliputi lima klon mangga Arumanis, dua klon mangga Gadung, dan empat klon mangga Gedong yang berasal dari Kebun Percobaan Cukurgondang, Pasuruan, Jawa Timur. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian dari bulan Januari sampai bulan November 2014. Marka yang digunakan ialah 30 marka mikrosatelit. Analisis kesamaan menggunakan koefisien Dice, sedangkan pengelompokan mangga menggunakan metode UPGMA yang ada di dalam program NTSYS 2.1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga pasang klon mangga dari 11 yang diuji, yakni Arumanis-143 dengan Arumanis-205, Gadung-21 dengan Arumanis-135, dan Gadung-185 dengan Arumanis-151. Ketiga pasang klon mangga tersebut memiliki tingkat kesamaan lebih dari 90%. Keragaman klon mangga Gedong sangat tinggi, terbukti dari variasi pola pita yang muncul dalam analisis DNA. Mangga Gadung-21 terbukti sinonim dengan mangga Arumanis-135 bukan dengan Arumanis -143.

Keywords

Mangga (Mangifera indica L.); Keragaman genetik; Marka mikrosatelit

Abstract

Mango is one of the important fruits in Indonesia. Naturally, the plants are cross pollinated, that caused variants in the same name. Arumanis and Gedong Gincu is one of the Indonesian mango varieties that are developed for domestic and international markets and has high economic value. In addition it those varieties, there is other varieties that is Gadung mango known as commercial mango that has character like to Arumanis. The earlier mango experts claimed that Gadung mango was synonymous with Arumanis, so that it could not be released as new superior variety. The mother plant of those varieties were collected at Cukurgondang Experimental Field. At these collection site, there were several clones of mango Arumanis, Gedong, and Gadung. This aims of this study were to determine the genetic diversity among eleven Indonesian commercial mango clones based on microsatellite markers. Plant materials used were eleven clones of mango consisted of five clones of Arumanis, two clones of mango Gadung, and four clones of mango Gedong, derived from Cukurgondang, Experimental Field, Pasuruan, East Java. This study was conducted at the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development from January to November 2014. Markers used were thirty microsatellite markers. Analysis of similarities were done using Dice coefficient, while the grouping of mango was analyzed using UPGMA method that was included in the program NTSYS 2.1. The results showed there were three pairs of mango, namely Arumanis-143 with Arumanis-205, Gadung-21 with Arumanis-135, and Gadung-185 with Arumanis-151. These three pairs of mango had more similarity level of 90%. All of mango Gedong clones were different, showed that they had high diversity. Mango Gadung-21 proved synonymous with mango Arumanis-135.


Keywords


Mango (Mangifera indica L.); Genetic variability; Microsatellite markers

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p31-40

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