Analisis Lokus dan Keragaman Sumber Daya Genetik Durian (Durio sp.) Berdasarkan Marka Mikrosatelit [Loci Analysis and Diversity of Durian (Durio sp.) Germplasm Based on Microsatellite Markers]

Panca Jarot Santoso, Andisa Granitia, Ni Luh Putu Indriyani, Adi Pancoro

Abstract


Durian merupakan salah satu tanaman buah asli Indonesia dengan tingkat keragaman genetik yang tinggi. Informasi keragaman genetik durian diperlukan untuk mendukung kegiatan perbaikan varietas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari karakteristik 10 lokus mikrosatelit dan keragaman genetik tujuh populasi durian menggunakan marka mikrosatelit. DNA genom durian diisolasi dari sampel daun muda menggunakan protokol berbasis CTAB. Amplifikasi lokus mikrosatelit menggunakan teknik PCR berlabel fluorescent 6-FAM dan HEX. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan program Genemarker 2.4.0, GenAlex 6.5, dan Cervus 3.0.3. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa 10 lokus mikrosatelit yang diuji memiliki polimorfisme dan tingkat informatifitas beragam dari tingkat rendah sampai tinggi. Dua lokus DzMTa005 dan DzMTa006 memiliki nilai PIC yang tinggi sehingga keduanya berpotensi sebagai penanda molekuler yang informatif. Analisis PCO secara intra-populasi menunjukkan distribusi alel cukup merata di antara 94 SDG durian yang digunakan. Sebaliknya, secara inter-populasi menunjukkan variasi genetik yang cukup tinggi, dan membuktikan bahwa Kalimantan sebagai pusat asal durian yang kemudian menyebar pada wilayah lainnya.

Keywords

Durian; Marka mikrosatelit; Keragaman genetik; Durio sp.

Abstract

Durian is one of the fruit crops native to Indonesia which consists of highly genetic variation. Information regarding genetic variation of durian germplasm is required to support efforts of varietal improvement. This research was aimed to study the characteristic of 10 microsatellite loci and diversity of seven populations of durian germplasm using microsatellite markers. Durian genomic DNA was isolated from young leaf using CTAB based protocol. Amplification of microsatellite loci was conducted through 6-FAM and HEX fluorescent labeled PCR. Data were analysed using PC-softwares Genemarker 2.4.0, GenAlex 6.5, and Cervus. The result showed that 10 microsatellite loci tested demonstrated polymorphism with informativity values varied from low to high. Two loci, DzMTa005 and DzMTa006, have high PIC value, therefore both loci are potential as informative molecular markers. PCO analysis at intra-population showed allele distribution evenly amongst 94 durian germplasms used. At inter-population, however, they possessed high genetic variation and indicated that Kalimantan as the center of origin of durian which were then distributed to the other regions.


Keywords


Durian; Microsatellite marker; Genetic diversity; Durio sp.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p9-20

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