Kajian Hubungan Faktor Cuaca dan Tanah terhadap Keparahan Penyakit Moler (The Study of Relationship between Weather and Soil Factors to the Fusarium Basal Rot Disease Severity)

Dwi Ndaru Sekar Asih, Bonny Poernomo Wahyu Soekarno, Titiek Siti Yuliani, nFN Surono

Abstract


Penyakit moler (Fusarium basal rot) pada bawang merah (Allium ascalonicum L.) disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, merupakan penyakit endemik di sentra produksi bawang merah Kabupaten Brebes. Penyakit moler dapat menyebabkan kerugian secara kualitas dan kuantitas dengan potensi kehilangan hasil mencapai 65,49%. Kejadian penyakit moler paling tinggi biasanya terjadi pada off season (musim hujan), namun penyakit ini juga ada di lapangan saat musim kemarau. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji hubungan faktor cuaca dan tanah terhadap keparahan penyakit moler di sentra produksi bawang merah Kabupaten Brebes khususnya Kecamatan Larangan, Wanasari, dan Brebes pada musim kemarau. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juli 2020 sampai Februari 2021 di sentra produksi bawang merah Kabupaten Brebes dengan metode survei kebun. Hasil observasi menunjukkan keparahan penyakit moler di tiga kecamatan sentra bawang merah, yaitu Kecamatan Brebes, Wanasari, dan Larangan tergolong sama rendah (< 5%) sebesar 2,34%; 1,54%; dan 1,06% dengan laju infeksi 0,000415;  0,000375; dan 0,000225 per unit per minggu, dan AUDPC 0,85; 0,43; 0,37 unit secara berurutan pada masa tanam Juli-Agustus. Perkembangan keparahan penyakit moler disebabkan oleh penurunan kelembapan udara yang disertai peningkatan suhu secara simultan. Berdasarkan hasil kajian korelasi sifat fisik dan kimia tanah terhadap keparahan penyakit moler menunjukkan bahwa C-organik dan rasio C/N berkorelasi negatif kuat dengan keparahan penyakit, sedangkan kandungan N-total dan persentase pasir tanah berkorelasi positif kuat dengan keparahan penyakit moler.

Keywords

Bawang merah; Faktor abiotik; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae; Korelasi

Abstract

Fusarium basal rot (FBR) disease on shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae is an endemic disease in the shallot production centre of Brebes Regency. FBR causes loss in quality and quantity with the potential for yield loss reaching 65,49%. Although severe infection with FBR occurs in the off season (rainy season), this disease can also occur in the field during the dry season. This study aims to examine the relationship between weather and soil factors on the FBR disease severity in the shallot production centre of Brebes Regency, especially Larangan, Wanasari, and Brebes Districts on dry season. The research was conducted from July 2020 to February 2021 at the shallot production centre in Brebes Regency using the garden survey method. The results of the observations showed that the FBR disease severity in three shallot centre subdistricts, namely Brebes, Wanasari and Larangan was low (< 5%) at 2,34%; 1,54%; 1,06% with an infection rate of 0,000415; 0,000375; 0,000225 per unit per week, and AUDPC 0,85; 0,43; 0,37 units respectively in July-August. The FBR disease progress is caused by a decrease in air humidity accompanied by a simultaneous increase in temperature. Based on the correlations of soil properties to the FBR disease severity, it was shown that C-organic and C/N ratio had a strong negative correlation with disease severity, while the total N content and percentage of soil sand had a strong positive correlation with disease severity.


Keywords


Shallot; Abiotic factor; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae; Correlation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v32n1.2022.p%25p

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