Eksplorasi Bakteri yang Berpotensi sebagai Pengendali Hama Ulat Grayak (Spodoptera litura) (Exploration of Potential Bacteria as Biological Control of Spodoptera litura)

Wilhelmus Terang Arga Sanjaya, Desak Ketut Tristiana Sukmadewi, Fahrizal Hazra, Aisamrotul Hasanah, Dwi Andreas Santosa

Abstract


Usaha pengendalian hama ulat grayak (Spodoptera litura) di tingkat petani masih mengandalkan pestisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengeksplorasi bakteri potensial pengendali hama ulat grayak (S. litura) dan menguji ketahanan bakteri potensial pada bahan pembawa kompos dan zeolit. Isolat tanah diisolasi dari tiga jenis sumber, yaitu sampel tanah daerah rhizosfer (padi, kelapa sawit, terung, jagung), sampel buah busuk (kakao, kelapa sawit, jambu air), dan sampel bangkai serangga (ulat api, belalang, kumbang tahi, kupu-kupu) yang diambil dari kawasan Dramaga dengan metode purposive sampling. Penelitian di laboratorium meliputi isolasi bakteri, uji patogenitas, pewarnaan gram, pengamatan morfologi koloni, uji toksisitas, uji biokimia, dan uji bahan pembawa. Berdasarkan penelitian ini didapatkan dua strain yang berpotensi sebagai agens biokontrol dengan kemampuan membunuh hama yang tinggi pada pengujian toksisitas tahap kedua, yaitu IRJ 10 (tingkat kematian 90%) dan ISU 4 (tingkat kematian 100%). Kedua isolat ini merupakan anggota genus Bacillus. Pada uji bahan pembawa kompos dan zeolit, penurunan jumlah sel bakteri pengendali hama paling tinggi adalah pada bahan pembawa zeolit dibandingkan dengan menggunakan bahan pembawa kompos. Jumlah sel bakteri pengendali hama pada masa penyimpanan 3 minggu masih di atas 108 CFU/g.

Keywords

Bakteri; Bahan pembawa; Ekplorasi; Agens pengendali hama; Ulat grayak (Spodoptera litura)

Abstract

The effort to control the Spodoptera litura at the farm level still used synthetic pesticides. This research aimed to explore potential bacteria as biological control of S. litura and do viability test of potential bacteria on compost and zeolite carrier. Soil potential bacteria had been isolated from three sources, including rhizosphere soil samples (rice, oil palm, eggplant, corn), rotten fruit samples (cocoa, oil palm, water), and insect samples (fireworms, locusts, dung beetles, butterflies) taken from Dramaga area with the purposive sampling method. Stages of laboratory study include isolation of bacterial isolates, pathogenicity tests, gram staining, colony morphology observation, toxicity test, biochemical test, and viability test. Two strains that have potential as biocontrol agents with a high ability to kill pests in the second stage of toxicity testing are IRJ 10 (90% mortality rate) and ISU 4 (100% mortality rate). Both of these isolates are members of the genus Bacillus. The highest number of viability was found in zeolite carriers. The number of bacterial cells in the three-week storage period is still above 108 CFU/g.


Keywords


Bacteria; Carrier; Exploration; Pest control agents; Spodoptera litura

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n2.2020.p%25p

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