Eksplorasi, Karakterisasi, dan Evaluasi Beberapa Klon Bawang Putih Lokal

- Hardiyanto, Nirmala Friyanti Devy, Arry Supriyanto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Bawang putih lokal saat ini sangat sulit dijumpai di pasaran setelah membanjirnya bawang putih impor ke Indonesia. Hal ini tentunya diperlukan upaya perbaikan produktivitas dan kualitas bawang putih lokal sekaligus sebagai konservasi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai karakter morfologi beberapa klon bawang putih lokal dan mendapatkan klon-klon bawang putih lokal hasil evaluasi yang potensial dan prospektif yang dapat bersaing dengan bawang putih impor. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Banaran, Batu pada ketinggian 900 m dpl. mulai bulan Juli sampai Oktober 2005. Eksplorasi dilakukan di beberapa daerah sentra produksi bawang putih. Karakterisasi dan evaluasi dilakukan berdasarkan descriptor lists dari IPGRI yang meliputi morfologi tanaman, produksi, dan kualitas umbi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok terdiri dari 10 klon diulang 3 kali. Hasil eksplorasi diperoleh 3 klon bawang putih baru, yaitu Teki, Ciwidey, dan Lumbu Kayu. Daya tumbuh 10 klon bawang putih yang ditanam di KP Banaran, Batu umumnya tinggi yaitu sekitar 95%. Dilihat dari umur panen, klon dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 3 kategori, yaitu umur panen pendek (90-110 hari setelah tanam) meliputi NTT, Teki, Sanggah, dan Lumbu Kuning, umur panen sedang (111-131 hari setelah tanam) meliputi Saigon, Lumbu Hijau, Krisik, Tawangmangu, dan Ciwidey, dan umur panen dalam (di atas 131 hari), yaitu Tiongkok. Tinggi batang semu bervariasi antara 9-26 cm. Klon Ciwidey dan Tiongkok terlihat paling pendek dibandingkan dengan klon lainnya. Diameter batang semu klon Tawangmangu terlihat paling besar dibandingkan klon lainnya meskipun tidak berbeda nyata dengan klon Teki. Terhadap jumlah daun, klon Ciwidey paling sedikit (9 helai) dibandingkan klon lainnya (11-15 helai). Hasil dan komponen hasil terlihat bahwa klon Tawangmangu dan Krisik memiliki bobot umbi yang paling tinggi, yaitu masing-masing 66,67 g dan 58,33 g/tanaman dibandingkan 8 klon lainnya. Sedangkan klon Sanggah dan NTT memiliki bobot umbi terendah, yaitu hanya 23,67 g dan 24,33 g/tanaman. Adapun produksi total tertinggi dicapai oleh klon Tawangmangu dan Lumbu Hijau masing-masing mencapai 33,21 t/ha dan 29,49 t/ha.

ABSTRACT. Hardiyanto, N.F. Devy, and A. Supriyanto. 2007. Exploration, Characterization, and Evaluation of Several Local Garlic Clones. Currently local garlics were rarely found in the market due to the flooding of imported garlic to Indonesia. Therefore, some efforts are needed to improve the productivity and quality as well as the conservation of local garlic clones. The aim of this research was to obtain some information on morphological characteristics of local garlic clones and the potential and prospective of local garlic clones which can compete with imported garlic. This research was conducted in Banaran Experimental Garden, Batu (900 m asl) from July to October 2005. Exploration was carried out in several centers of local garlic production. Characterization and evaluation were based on descriptor lists published by IPGRI such as morphology, yields, and quality. Randomized block design was used in this research consisted of 10 clones with 3 replications. Three new garlic clones were collected through exploration, those were Teki, Ciwidey, and Lumbu Kayu. Growth percentage of 10 local garlic clones grown in Banaran Experimental Garden, Batu was relatively high, it was 95%. Based on harvesting time, clones were classified into 3 groups, those were short period (90-110 days after planting) i.e: NTT, Teki, Sanggah, and Lumbu Kuning; medium period (111-131 days after planting) i.e.: Saigon, Lumbu Hijau, Krisik, Tawangmangu, and Ciwidey; and long period (more than 131 days after planting) i.e. Tiongkok. Plant height was varied between 9-26 cm. Plant height of Ciwidey and Tiongkok were relatively shorter than others, whereas diameter of Tawangmangu and Teki were relatively bigger than others. Total leaf number of Ciwidey (9 leaves) was lower than others (11-15 leaves). Based on yields and yield components, bulb weight of Tawangmangu and Krisik were higher than others, i.e. 66.67 g and 58.33 g/plant respectively, whereas Sanggah and NTT were lower than others, i.e. 23.67 g and 24. 33 g/plant. The high yield were performed by Tawangmangu and Lumbu Hijau, it reached 33.21 t/ha and 29.49 t/ha, respectively.

Keywords


Allium sativum; Clone; Exploration; Evaluation; Characterization.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n4.2007.p%25p

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