Seleksi Induk Tanaman Bawang Merah

Raden Prasodjo Soedomo

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Keterbatasan sumber genetik mengakibatkan program pemuliaan pada bawang merah tidak tercapai. Penggunaan induk sebagai bahan pemuliaan, perlu diseleksi dan dievaluasi terlebih dahulu. Percobaan ini bertujuan menyeleksi dan mengevaluasi penampilan fenotifik dan daya adaptasi untuk bahan induk tanaman. Percobaan dilakukan di Kebun Benih Induk Padi Kramat, daerah dataran rendah Kabupaten Tegal, Jawa Tengah pada bulan Oktober s/d Desember 2005 musim kemarau sampai dengan hujan, jenis tanah alluvial, pada ketinggian +5 m dpl. Menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, jumlah ulangan 5 dan 13 perlakuan. Perlakuan tersebut adalah Ilokos, Bima Brebes, Bauji, Cokol Hijau, Singkil Gajah, Philipina, Timor, Bethok, Tiron, Kuning, Maja, Bangkok Warso, dan Bombay. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kultivar yang mempunyai potensi sebagai bahan induk adalah kultivar Tiron, Bethok, dan Bima Brebes dengan kemampuan bertahan hidup cukup baik (92,92; 91,2; dan 81,54%), Jumlah anakan cukup banyak (9,90; 5,34; dan 7,24 anakan), jumlah daun tiap rumpun cukup lebat (35,50; 26,18; dan 21,62 helai), pertumbuhan tanaman tidak terlalu tinggi (8,42; 27,20; dan 23,62 cm), ukuran umbi relatif cukup besar dengan diameter umbi (24,2/25,4; 23,6/27,6; dan 22,4/26,6 mm), produksinya cukup tinggi dengan bobot hasil umbi kering per plot 6 m2 (5970,4; 5107,0; dan 4915,20 g), per dapur (92,6; 76,6; dan 76,7 g), dan per ha (9,26; 8,51; dan 8,18 t). Susut bobot cukup sedikit (18,34; 19,03; dan 21,73%), serta ketahanan hama penyakit cukup baik. Dilihat dari penampilan fenotifik secara umum dapat dibagi ke dalam 6–10 kelompok penampilan yang berbeda yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan induk pemuliaan.

ABSTRACT. Soedomo, R.P. 2006. The parent selection of shallots. Limiting genetic sources hindered breeding program of shallot. The breeding materials, must be selected and evaluated. The objective of this trial was to select and evaluate the phenotype and adaptability of shallot for breeding materials. This experiment was conducted at District of Tegal, Central Java (+ 5 m asl), from October to December 2005 (dry to rainy season), at alluvial soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with 5 replications. The varieties of shallot used in this experiment were Ilokos, Bima Brebes, Bauji, Cokol Hijau, Singkil Gajah, Philipina, Timor, Bethok, Tiron, Kuning, Maja, Bangkok Warso, and Bombay. The results of this experiment showed that the potential cultivar for breeding materials were Tiron, Bethok and Bima Brebes cultivars, with survival rate i.e. 92.92; 91,2; and 81,54% respectively, moderate number of bulblet i.e. 9.90; 5.34 and 7.24 bulblet, respectively moderate number of leaf i.e. 35.50; 26.18; and 21.62 respectively, plant height (18.42; 27.20; and 23.62 cm), relatively big bulb size, with diameter 24.2/25.4; 23.6/27.6; and 22.4/26.6 mm respectively), relatively high production was rather yield i.e. dry bulb per plot 5,970.4; 5,107.0; and 4,915.20 g/6 m2 respectively; per hole 92.6; 76.6; and 76.7 g respectively, and per ha: 9.26; 8.51; and 8.18 t respectively. Weight losses was moderate i.e. 18.34; 19.03; and 21.73% respectively, and resistance of pest and diseases were moderate to good. Base on general phenotype appearance there were 6 to 10 groups considered as breeding materials.

Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Evaluation and selection; Tropical lowland; Parent plant

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n4.2006.p%25p

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