Pengaruh Tanaman Penutup Tanah dan Mulsa Organik terhadap Produksi Cabai dan Erosi Tanah

Nani Sumarni, Aang Hidayat, Eti Sumiati

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Masalah utama budidaya cabai di lahan kering pegunungan dengan kemiringan >15° adalah erosi tanah dan pencucian hara sebagai akibat aliran air di permukaan tanah. Salah satu upaya mengatasinya adalah dengan penggunaan tanaman penutup tanah dan mulsa organik. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Samarang, Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat, dengan tujuan mendapatkan jenis tanaman penutup tanah dan mulsa organik yang cocok untuk penanaman cabai. Penelitian menggunakan strip plot design dengan 4 perlakuan jenis tanaman penutup tanah (tanpa tanaman penutup tanah, kacang jogo, kacang tanah, dan ubi jalar) dan 3 jenis mulsa organik (tanpa mulsa, jerami, dan sisa-sisa tanaman). Masing-masing perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Tanaman penutup tanah dan tanaman cabai ditanam pada waktu bersamaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan mulsa jerami dan mulsa sisa-sisa tanaman tidak meningkatkan hasil bobot buah cabai, tetapi meningkatkan jumlah buah cabai masing-masing 6,8 dan 4,0% dan menekan erosi tanah sebesar 34,82%. Tanaman kacang jogo dan kacang tanah sebagai tanaman penutup tanah dapat meningkatkan produksi cabai masing-masing sebesar 11,74 dan 33,91%, dan juga dapat menurunkan erosi tanah masing-masing sebesar 22,41 dan 39,65%. Sebaliknya tanaman penutup tanah ubi jalar dapat menurunkan hasil cabai, tetapi paling efektif untuk menekan erosi tanah, yaitu sebesar 41,38%. Tanaman penutup tanah paling baik untuk penanaman cabai adalah kacang tanah karena dapat memberikan peningkatan hasil cabai paling tinggi (33,91%). Penggunaan tanaman penutup dan mulsa organik yang baik diharapkan dapat mempertahankan keberlanjutan produktivitas lahan.

ABSTRACT. Sumarni, N., A. Hidayat, and E. Sumiati. 2006. The effect of cover crops and organic mulches on hot pepper yield and soil erosion. The main problem of hot pepper cultivation in dry upland with slope of >15° is the nutrient leaching and soil erosion due to run-off. One of the efforts to overcome this problem is by utilization of cover crops and organic mulches. The aim of the experiment was to determine the best cover crop and organic mulch in hot pepper cultivation. A strip plot design with 3 replications was used. The treatments were 4 kinds of cover crops (without cover crop, red bean, ground peanut, and sweet potato) and 3 kind of organic mulches (without mulch, rice straw, and plant residues). Cover crops and hot pepper were planted at the same time. Results of the experiment indicated that application of rice straw and plant residues mulches did not affect the yield of hot pepper, but increased the fruit number by 6.8% and 4% respectively, and decreased soil erosion by 34.82%. Using red bean and ground peanut as cover crops could increase hot pepper yield by 11.74 and 33.91%, and also decreased soil erosion by 22.41 and 39.65%, respectively. On the other hand, cover crop of sweet potato decreased the growth and yields of pepper, however, it was the most effective for decreasing soil erosion (41.38%). The best cover crop for cultivating hot pepper was ground peanut which gave the highest increased in yield of hot pepper (33.91%). Application of suitable cover crop and organic mulch can maintain soil productivity.

Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Cover crop; Organic mulch; Yield; Sloping hill; Soil erosion.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v16n3.2006.p%25p

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