Studi Rantai Pasok Bahan Baku Keripik Kentang Industri Rumah Tangga di Jawa Barat (Supply Chain Study of Raw Material for Household Industry’s Potato Chips in West Java)

Witono Adiyoga, Darkam Musaddad, Asma Sembiring

Abstract


Salah satu faktor utama yang dapat menjaga keberlanjutan dan kontinuitas produksi industri pengolahan pertanian adalah ketersediaan pasokan bahan baku. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi karakteristik industri dan merancang upaya perbaikan rantai pasok bahan baku keripik kentang industri rumah tangga di Jawa Barat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Garut dan Pangalengan, Jawa Barat pada bulan Agustus 2016. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui metode survey dan focus group discussion (FGD). Survey dilaksanakan melalui wawancara 19 responden prosesor keripik kentang skala rumah tangga. Focus group discussion diarahkan untuk mengelaborasi kondisi aktual dan potensi perbaikan rantai pasok bahan baku keripik kentang. Alat analisis yang digunakan adalah statistika deskriptif, analisis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT,) matriks strategic position and action evaluation matrix (SPACE), dan analisis quantitative strategis planning matrix (QSPM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pasokan bahan baku per industri adalah 2,8 ton per bulan. Sistem pembelian bahan baku adalah spot market. Kapasitas produksi keripik kentang per bulan berkisar antara 15–540 kg (84,2%). Spesifikasi bahan baku masih belum terstandarisasi dan bersifat ekstrinsik kualitatif. Analisis SWOT dan pemetaan faktor-faktor eksternal-internal menunjukkan bahwa perbaikan rantai pasok dapat ditempuh dengan menggunakan strategi agresif. Penyusunan prioritas strategi melalui analisis QSPM menyarankan agar strategi promosi masif varietas alternatif kentang prosesing non-Atlantik (termasuk Median) dan kemudahan akses petani terhadap benihnya, serta strategi perbaikan sistem pembelian bahan baku dapat diimplementasikan secara simultan.

Keywords

Keripik kentang; Industri rumah tangga; Rantai pasok bahan baku; Analisis kekuatan-kelemahan-peluang-ancaman

Abstract

One important factor that could maintain production sustainability of agro-processing industry is the availability of raw material. The study was aimed at examining potato chips household industry characteristics and designing strategies to improve the raw material supply chain in West Java. The study was conducted in Garut and Pangalengan in August 2016. Data collection was carried out through survey of 19 household industries. Meanwhile, FGD involving relevant participants was conducted to elaborate household industries’ existing conditions and potentials for improvements. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics, analysis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT),  strategic position and action evaluation (SPACE) matrix, and quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM) analysis. The results showed that the industry was characterized by average raw material demand of 2.8 tons/firm/month, spot market purchasing system, and production capacity of 15–540 kg/month. SWOT analysis and mapping in SPACE demonstrate that the improvement of raw material supply chain is best pursued by employing aggressive strategy. Priority setting by QSPM suggests that the strategy of promoting massively non-Atlantic potato processing varieties (included Median) by also increasing farmers’ seed access, and improving potato chips raw material procurement systems should be implemented simultaneously.


Keywords


Potato chips; Household industry; Raw material supply chain; SWOT analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n2.2020.p%25p

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