Peran Penyuluhan Pertanian dan Preferensi Risiko terhadap Penggunaan Pupuk Berlebih pada Usaha Tani Padi

Roydatul Zikria, Arie Damayanti

Abstract


English
Fertilizer overuse was expected to increase rice production. Yet it might decrease soil fertility in the long term. In Indonesia, there were more than 50% of farm households who used nitrogen fertilizer in excess although government recommendation was 250 kg/ha. In 2010, the average of nitrogen fertilizer overuse was 285 kg/ha and it decreased to 278 kg/ha in 2016. This study was aimed to analyse the impact of agricultural extension and risk preference on fertilizer overuse using Patanas Survey in 2010 and 2016. Those effects were estimated with Tobit model. Risk preference of farm households were estimated with non-parametric model using Just-Pope production function. The empirical results showed that agricultural extension reduced significantly fertilizer overuse in rice farming. Moreover, this study found that degree of risk preference negatively and significantly affected on fertilizer overuse. If degree of risk preference increased by one unit then fertilizer overuse decreased by 1.36 kg/ha, so its efficiency was only Rp2,448/ha. The cost efficiency was small because this study only used nitrogen fertilizer overuse as dependent variable whose dose was recommended by Ministry of Agriculture. Hence, other chemical fertilizer dose should be recommended by creating a regulation so fertilizer overuse could be prevented.


Indonesian
Penggunaan pupuk berlebih dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produksi padi. Namun dalam jangka panjang penggunaan pupuk yang berlebih dapat menurunkan kesuburan tanah. Lebih dari 50% rumah tangga petani di Indonesia menggunakan urea secara berlebih meskipun pemerintah telah merekomendasikan sebesar 250 kg/ha. Pada tahun 2010 rata-rata penggunaan urea berlebih mencapai 285 kg/ha sedangkan pada tahun 2016 rata-rata penggunaanya menjadi 278 kg/ha. Dengan menggunakan data Survei Panel Petani Nasional (Patanas) Tahun 2010 dan Tahun 2016, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran penyuluhan pertanian dan preferensi risiko terhadap kelebihan penggunaan pupuk. Dampak tersebut diestimasi dengan model tobit. Preferensi risiko rumah tangga petani dihitung dengan model nonparametrik menggunakan fungsi produksi Just-Pope. Hasil empiris menunjukkan bahwa penyuluhan pertanian berperan signifikan dalam mengurangi kelebihan penggunaan pupuk pada usaha tani padi. Selain itu, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa tingkat risk preference berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap kelebihan penggunaan pupuk. Kenaikan satu unit tingkat risk preference mengakibatkan rumah tangga petani mengurangi kelebihan penggunaan pupuk sebanyak 1,36 kg/ha sehingga terjadi efisiensi sebesar Rp2.448/ha. Kecilnya efisiensi biaya dalam penelitian dikarenakan penggunaan pupuk yang diukur sebagai variabel dependen hanya urea dengan dosis yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kementan. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya regulasi yang mengatur dosis penggunaan pupuk kimia lain sehingga penggunaan pupuk berlebih dapat dicegah.

Keywords


agricultural extension; risk preference; overuse; nitrogen fertilizer; non-parametric model; penyuluhan pertanian; preferensi risiko; urea; model nonparametrik

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v37n1.2019.79-94

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