Dampak Perubahan Harga Pangan terhadap Tingkat Kesejahteraan Rumah Tangga di Indonesia

Rita Yuliana, nFN Harianto, Sri Hartoyo, Muhammad Firdaus


The most important people's welfare related food problem is increasing food prices. Food price induced welfare change varies by household groups, either by location (urban/rural), poverty status (poor/non-poor), and souces of incomes (agriculture/non-agricultural). The sources of the welfare change may also vary by food categories. This study aims to evaluate changes in household welfare in Indonesia by household groups and the contribution of food categories. The household welfare was measured with the Compensating Variation which was computed by using the Hicksian compensated price elasticities obtained from the estimated Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System using the National Socio-Economic Survey March 2016 data. The results showed that in March 2016, welfare losses in all household groups, in urban areas higher than in rural areas, in poorer households higher than non-poor, in agricultural households higher than non-agricultural and the contribution of each food group to the decline in welfare levels varies among individual household groups. The largest contributor is food prices. Rice is the largest contributor for the rural, the poor and the agricultural households. Animal products, fruit, prepared food and beverage and cigarettes categories are the main contributors for the urban, the not poor and the non-agricultural households.

Permasalahan pangan utama yang berkaitan dengan tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat adalah kenaikan harga pangan. Perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan akibat kenaikan harga pangan berbeda menurut kelompok seperti menurut tempat tinggal (perkotaan/perdesaan), status kemiskinan (miskin/tidak miskin), sumber utama penghasilan rumah tangga (pertanian/nonpertanian). Demikian pula kontribusi masing-masing kategori pangan terhadap perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan berbeda pada kelompok rumah tangga sama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan rumah tangga di Indonesia menurut kelompok rumah tangga dan kontribusi kategori pangan terhadap perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan tersebut. Perubahan kesejahteraan diukur dengan Compensating Variation berdasarkan elastisitas harga terkompensasi Hicksian yang diperoleh dari model permintaan Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System dengan data Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional periode Maret 2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada Maret 2016, terjadi penurunan kesejahteraan pada semua kelompok rumah tangga, di perkotaan lebih tinggi daripada di perdesaan, pada rumah tangga miskin lebih tinggi dari pada tidak miskin, pada rumah tangga pertanian lebih tinggi dari pada nonpertanian. Kelompok makanan berkontribusi tertinggi terhadap penurunan tingkat kesejahteraan rumah tangga secara umum. Beras berkontribusi tertinggi dalam penurunan tingkat kesejahteraan kelompok rumah tangga perdesaan, miskin, dan pertanian. Kategori pangan hewani, kelompok buah-buahan, makanan dan minuman jadi serta rokok berkontribusi tertinggi untuk kelompok rumah tangga di perkotaan, tidak miskin dan nonpertanian.


food; price; welfare; household; pangan; harga; kesejahteraan; rumah tangga

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v37n1.2019.25-45


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