Rice Farmers’ Perception And Attitude Toward Organic Farming Adoption

nFN Ashari, Juwaidah Sharifuddin, Zainal Abidin Mohammed, Rika Terano

Abstract


Indonesia
Pada awal abad ke-21, gaya hidup "kembali ke alam" menjadi tren karena orang lebih sadar terhadap dampak negatif penggunaan input kimia pertanian. Fenomena ini menyebabkan konsumen, terutama yang berpenghasilan menengah atas, untuk mengonsumsi makanan sehat. Hal ini menyiratkan bahwa pertanian organik memiliki prospek cukup baik di masa mendatang. Namun demikian, minat petani untuk menjalankan pertanian organik ternyata masih rendah yang ditandai dengan lambatnya adopsi. Review literatur mengungkapkan bahwa persepsi terhadap karakteristik inovasi memiliki kontribusi yang nyata terhadap perilaku adopsi. Tujuan utama penelitian adalah untuk menguji pengaruh persepsi petani, yaitu persepsi kegunaan teknologi, risiko, kepedulian lingkungan, dan sikap terhadap niat mereka untuk mengadopsi usaha tani padi organik. Penelitian ini melibatkan 600 petani padi sebagai responden di Kabupaten Sragen, Jawa Tengah. Responden dikelompokkan menjadi dua kategori, yaitu petani semiorganik dan konvensional. Penggalian data dilakukan pada Mei–Agustus 2015 menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persepsi tentang kegunaan teknologi, kepedulian lingkungan dan sikap berpengaruh positif dan nyata terhadap niat adopsi usaha tani padi organik, baik pada petani semiorganik maupun konvensional. Namun, persepsi terhadap risiko berpengaruh negatif dan nyata pada petani konvensional, tetapi tidak nyata untuk petani semiorganik. Disimpulkan bahwa persepsi dan sikap terbukti memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap niat adopsi. Oleh karena itu, untuk meningkatkan tingkat adopsi diperlukan upaya pemerintah untuk membangun persepsi dan sikap positif petani terhadap usaha tani organik. Petani juga membutuhkan dukungan dari beberapa pihak untuk mendorong mereka agar turut terlibat dalam praktik usaha tani organik.

English
Back to nature lifestyle emerges as people were more aware against the adverse impacts of agro-chemical inputs in the early 21st century. This phenomenon has led the consumers, particularly for upper-middle income, to consume healthy foods. It implies that the organic farming has a good prospect in forthcoming years. However, the intention of farmer to practice organic farming is still low as indicated by slow rate of adoption. The literature review reveals that perception on innovation characteristics has a significant contribution on adoption behavior. Objective of this study is to examine the farmers’ perception, namely perceived usefulness, perceived risk, environmental concern, as well as attitude affecting their intention to adopt organic farming. This study involves 600 rice farmers as respondents in Sragen Regency, Central Java. The respondents were grouped into two categories namely semi-organic and conventional farmers. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire in May–August 2015. The results show that the perceived usefulness, environmental concern, and attitude positively and significantly affect intention to adopt rice organic farming from both of semi and conventional farmers. Meanwhile, the perceived risk influences negatively on intention to adopt organic rice farming merely for conventional farmers. It is concluded that the perceptions and attitude have significant effect on intention. Therefore, efforts should be undertaken to raise positive farmers’ perception and attitude. Farmers also need supports from several parties to encourage them to involve in organic rice farming.

Keywords


pertanian organik; persepsi petani; proses adopsi; niat berperilaku; organic farming; farmer’s perception; adoption process; behavioral intention

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v34n1.2016.35-46

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