Economic Efficiency of Rice Farmers in a Rainfed Lowland Environment Before and During the Financial Crisis

I Putu Wardana, nFN Mulyadi, Corazon T. Aragon

Abstract


Indonesian

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai efisiensi ekonomi dari petani padi lahan sawah tadah hujan sebelum dan selama krisis ekonomi di Jawa Tengah. Data yang digunakan dalam analisis adalah panel data dari 90 petani responden yang mencakup musim tanam 1997 dan 1999. Teknik analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa pendapatan dan biaya, uji beda nilai tengah, dan analisa regresi. Hasil regresi dari fungsi keuntungan menunjukkan bahwa harga gabah, pupuk dan tenaga kerja secara statistik nyata pengaruhnya terhadap keuntungan usahatani baik pada musim hujan maupun musim kemarau. Petani secara ekonomi ternyata lebih efisien dalam memproduksi padi selama krisis dari pada sebelum krisis ekonomi. Efisiensi ekonomi pada musim hujan ternyata lebih tinggi dari pada musim kemarau karena infestasi hama dan kompetisi gulma lebih rendah serta air cukup. Efisiensi ekonomi meningkat selama krisis ekonomi seiring dengan meningkatnya harga sarana produksi terutama pupuk, herbisida dan insektisida. Efisiensi ekonomi sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat pendidikan, krisis ekonomi, dan musim tanam. Pengalaman usahatani, ukuran rumah tangga, dan status penguasaan lahan tidak nyata pengaruhnya terhadap efisiensi ekonomi.


English

This study assessed the economic efficiency of rainfed lowland rice farmers before and during the financial crisis in Central Java. Panel data from 90 farmers were gathered by means of a structured questionnaire covering the 1997 and 1999 crop seasons. The analytical techniques employed in this study were costs and returns analysis, statistical test of means, and regression analysis. Regression results of the unit profit model showed that the prices of rough rice, fertilizer and labor were statistically significant for both the wet season and the dry season. Regardless of cropping season, the farmers were more economically efficient in producing rice during the period of financial crisis than before the financial crisis. Economic efficiency in the wet season was higher than in the dry season because of lower pest infestation and weed competition and because of sufficient water supply. Economic efficiency was significantly affected by level of education, financial crisis and cropping season. It increased during the financial crisis despite the price increase of input factors, especially fertilizer, herbicide and insecticide. During the wet season, farmers were found to be more economically efficient than in the dry season. Farming experience, household size, and tenure status did not significantly affect farmers' economic efficiency.

Keywords


efisiensi ekonomi; petani padi; krisis ekonomi; economic efficiency; rice farmers; financial crisis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v19n1.2001.85-105

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