Dampak Flu Burung Terhadap Produksi Unggas dan Kontribusi Usaha Unggas terhadap Pendapatan Peternak Skala Kecil di Indonesia

Nyak Ilham, Yusmichad Yusdja

Abstract


English

The impact of AI, either directly or indirectly, has caused a sharp decrease of chicken to 60 percent. Various issues should be considered to control bird flu outbreaks in integrative, effective and fair ways. This is important not only to avoid people’s fear, but also to deeply consider the farmer’s sustainability business along with all activities related to the poultry industry. For this objective, Indonesia must have an understanding on the socio-economic impacts of poultry industries, so that the program formulation of bird flu control would be more effective. The purposes of this study are: (1) to identify factors inhibiting and originator control of AI; (2) to analyze the impact of bird flu outbreaks on the continuation of poultry business; (3) to analyze the impact of bird flu on poultry business contribution to farmers’ household income; (4) to analyze the impact of bird flu outbreaks and production factors on poultry production, and (5) to formulate policy recommendation to control AI and to reduce the economic losses due to its epidemics. The research locations were selected based on the three levels of criteria, i.e., mild attack (Lampung), moderate (East Java) and heavy (West Java). In each of these provinces, 720 respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Data and information were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative type approaches. The study concluded that: (1) bird cage location affects the level of AI infestations, (2) poultry business sustainability is affected by the level of assault, type of poultry and patterns of business; (3) at aggregate level, the impact of bird flu has caused a decrease in the share of income obtained from poultry business, (4) beside a source of income, the poultry business also create jobs and (5) the level of infestations, the infected conditions, and the time of AI infestations are all affecting the production of poultry meat and eggs. Some policy recommendations to consider are: (1) to standardize the operating procedures of the determination of business location, good farming practices, and control outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases; (2) changes of marketed products are required from live chickens to carcass; and (3) to maintain poultry business and income from small-scale farm activity, the broiler breeders are suggested to join the partnership pattern of business and the farmers are encouraged to find other economic activities for their additional sources of income.


Indonesian

Dampak flu burung secara langsung dan tak langsung telah menyebabkan produksi ayam turun sampai 60 persen. Banyak hal harus dipertimbangkan dalam mengendalikan wabah flu burung secara integratif, efektif, dan adil. Karena tidak hanya memberi rasa takut pada masyarakat umum, tetapi juga mempertimbangkan keberlanjutan usaha peternak dan semua aktivitas yang terkait dengan industri perunggasan. Untuk mencapai itu, Indonesia harus mempunyai pemahaman tentang dampak sosial ekonomi pada industri peternakan, sehingga perumusan program pengendalian flu burung dapat lebih efektif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor pencetus dan penghambat pengendalian wabah flu burung, (2) menganalisis dampak wabah flu burung terhadap keberlanjutan usaha peternak, (3) menganalisis dampak wabah flu burung terhadap sumbangan usaha unggas dan pendapatan rumah tangga peternak, (4) menganalisis pengaruh wabah flu burung dan faktor produksi terhadap produksi unggas, dan (5) merekomendasikan kebijakan pengendalian flu burung untuk mengurangi kerugian ekonomi akibat wabah dan pengendalian flu burung. Lokasi penelitian dipilih secara sengaja berdasarkan kriteria tingkat serangan ringan (Lampung), sedang (Jawa Timur), dan berat (Jawa Barat). Pada masing-masing provinsi diwawancarai 240 responden dengan menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Data dan informasi yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan pendekatan deskriptif dan ekonometrika. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa (1) lokasi kandang unggas berpengaruh dengan tingkat serangan wabah flu burung, (2) keberlanjutan usaha unggas dipengaruhi oleh tingkat serangan, jenis unggas yang dipelihara, dan pola usaha yang dikembangkan, (3) secara agregat dampak wabah flu burung menyebabkan penurunan pangsa pendapatan dari usaha unggas, (4) selain sebagai sumber pendapatan, usaha unggas menciptakan lapangan kerja, (5) tingkat serangan, kondisi infeksi, dan waktu serangan wabah flu burung berpengaruh terhadap produksi daging dan telur unggas. Beberapa kebijakan yang perlu dipertimbangkan adalah (1) perlu prosedur operasional standar dalam menentukan lokasi usaha, berusaha, dan mengendalikan berbagai wabah penyakit menular berbahaya, (2) diperlukan perubahan produk yang dipasarkan dari ayam hidup menjadi karkas, (3) untuk menjaga keberlanjutan usaha unggas dan pendapatan peternak skala kecil disarankan agar peternak ayam pedaging bergabung dalam pola kemitraan dan peternak masih perlu cabang usaha lain.

Keywords


dampak; flu burung; kesejahteraan; skala kecil; impacts; avian flu; welfare; small scale

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v28n1.2010.39-68

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